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IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users

IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users

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Published by CorneliousJD
An intro to IP addressing and subnetting for novice users, from Cisco Systems, Inc.
An intro to IP addressing and subnetting for novice users, from Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: CorneliousJD on Nov 10, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/28/2010

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Table of Contents
IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users..................................................................................................1
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................1Prerequisites............................................................................................................................................1Requirements....................................................................................................................................1Components Used.............................................................................................................................1AdditionalInformation.....................................................................................................................1Conventions......................................................................................................................................2UnderstandingIP Addresses...................................................................................................................2Network Masks.......................................................................................................................................3Understanding Subnetting.......................................................................................................................4Examples.................................................................................................................................................5Sample Exercise 1............................................................................................................................6Sample Exercise 2............................................................................................................................6VLSM Example......................................................................................................................................7VLSM Example................................................................................................................................8CIDR.......................................................................................................................................................9Appendix.................................................................................................................................................9Sample Config..................................................................................................................................9Host/Subnet Quantities Table.........................................................................................................10NetPro Discussion Forums − Featured Conversations.........................................................................11Related Information..............................................................................................................................11
Cisco − IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Usersi
 
IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users
IntroductionPrerequisites
RequirementsComponents UsedAdditional InformationConventions
Understanding IP AddressesNetwork MasksUnderstanding SubnettingExamples
Sample Exercise 1Sample Exercise 2
VLSM Example
VLSM Example
CIDRAppendix
Sample ConfigHost/Subnet Quantities Table
NetPro Discussion Forums − Featured ConversationsRelated Information
Introduction
This document will give you basic information you will need to configure your router for routing IP, such ashow addresses are broken down and how subnetting works. You will learn how to assign each interface on therouter an IP address with a unique subnet. And do not worry, we will show you lots of examples to help tieeverything together.
Prerequisites
Requirements
There are no specific prerequisites for this document.
Components Used
This document is not restricted to specific software and hardware versions.
Additional Information
If definitions are helpful to you, use these vocabulary terms to get you started:
Address
The unique number ID assigned to one host or interface in a network.
Subnet
A portion of a network sharing a particular subnet address.
Subnet mask
A 32−bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the subnetand which part refers to the host.
Interface
A network connection.
Cisco − IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users
 
If you have already received your legitimate address(es) from the InterNIC (Internet Network InformationCenter), you are ready to begin. If you are not planning on connecting to the Internet, we strongly suggest thatyou use reserved addresses from RFC 1918 .
Conventions
For more information on document conventions, see the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions.
Understanding IP Addresses
An IP address is an address used to uniquely identify a device on an IP network. The address is made up of 32binary bits which can be divisible into a network portion and host portion with the help of a subnet mask. The32 binary bits are broken into four octets (1 octet = 8 bits). Each octet is converted to decimal and separatedby a period (dot). For this reason, an IP address is said to be expressed in dotted decimal format (for example,172.16.81.100). The value in each octet ranges from 0 to 255 decimal, or 00000000 − 11111111 binary.Here is how binary octets convert to decimal: The right most bit, or least significant bit, of an octet will hold avalue of 2
0
. The bit just to the left of that will hold a value of 2
1
. This continues until the left−most bit, ormost significant bit, which will hold a value of 2
7
. So if all binary bits are a one, the decimal equivalent wouldbe 255 as shown here:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 (128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255)
Here is a sample octet conversion when not all of the bits are set to 1.
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 64 0 0 0 0 0 1 (0+64+0+0+0+0+0+1=65)
And this is sample shows an IP address represented in both binary and decimal.
10. 1. 23. 19 (decimal)00001010.00000001.00010111.00010011 (binary)
These octets are broken down to provide an addressing scheme that can accommodate large and smallnetworks. There are five different classes of networks, A to E. This document focuses on addressing classes Ato C, since classes D and E are reserved and discussion of them is beyond the scope of this document.
Note:
Also note that the terms "Class A, Class B" and so on are used in this document to help facilitate theunderstanding of IP addressing and subnetting. These terms are rarely used in the industry anymore becauseof the introduction of classless intra domain routing (CIDR).Given an IP address, its class can be determined from the three high−order bits. Figure 1 shows thesignificance in the three high order bits and the range of addresses that fall into each class. For informationalpurposes, Class D and Class E addresses are also shown.
Figure 1
Cisco − IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users

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