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Elementary Linear Algebra With Applications 10e Student Solutions Manual

# Elementary Linear Algebra With Applications 10e Student Solutions Manual

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11/27/2012

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Chapter 1Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices
Section 1.1Exercise Set 1.11.
(a), (c), and (f) are linear equations in
1
,
x

2
,
x
and
3
.
x
(b) is not linear because of the term
13
.
x x
(d) is not linear because of the term
2
.
x
(e) is not linear because of the term
351 /
.
x

3.
(a) and (d) are linear systems.(b) is not a linear system because the first and second equations are not linear.(c) is not a linear system because the second equation is not linear.
5.
By inspection, (a) and (d) are both consistent;
1
3,
x
=

234
221,,
x x x
= = =
is a solution of (a) and
1234
1322,,,
x x x x
= = = =
is a solution of (d). Note that both systems have infinitely many solutions.
7.
(a), (d), and (e) are solutions.(b) and (c) do not satisfy any of the equations.
9. (a)
7535377
x y x y
== +
Let
y
=
. The solution is5377
x y y
= +=

(b)

12341234
8256115314848
x x x x x x x x
+ − + == + −
Let
23
,,
x r x s
= =
and
4
.
x
=
The solution is
1
15314848
x r s
= − +

234
x  x s x
===

11. (a)
002304011
corresponds to
1122
203401.
x x x x
===

Chapter 1:
Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

SSM:
Elementary Linear Algebra

2

(b)
305273140721
corresponds to
1312323
32574327.
x x x x x x x
=+ + = + =

(c)
7352101241
corresponds to
1234123
7235241
x x x x x x x
+ + − =+ + =
.
(d)
00071000120003100014
corresponds to
1234
7234.
x x x x
== ==

13. (a)
The augmented matrix for
111
263893
x x x
=== −
is623893.

(b)
The augmented matrix for
12323
63451
x x x x x
+ ==
is63140511.

(c)
The augmented matrix for
24512312345
2303162236
x x x x x x x x x x x
+ =+ = + + =
is003021300111636212.

(d)
The augmented matrix for
15
7
x x
=
is[1 0 0 0
1 7].
15.
If (
a
,
b
,
c
) is a solution of the system, then
2111
,
ax bx c y
+ + =

2222
,
ax bx c y
+ + =
and
2333
ax bx c y
+ + =
which simply means that thepoints are on the curve.
17.
The solutions of
12
x kx c
+ =
are
1
,
x c k
=

2
x
=
where
is any real number. If thesesatisfy
12
,
x lx
+ =
then
c

kt
+
lt
=
or
c

= (

l
)
for all real numbers
. Inparticular, if
= 0, then
c
=
, and if
= 1, then
=
l
.
True/False 1.1(a)
True;
12
0
n
x x x
= = = =
will be a solution.
(b)
False; only multiplication by nonzero constantsis acceptable.
(c)
True; if
= 6 the system has infinitely manysolutions, while if

6, the system has nosolution.
(d)
True; the equation can be solved for one variablein terms of the other(s), yielding parametricequations that give infinitely many solutions.
(e)
False; the system 357292061014
x y x y x y
= −+ == −
has thesolution
x
= 1,
y
= 2.
(f)
False; multiplying an equation by a nonzeroconstant
c
does not change the solutions of thesystem.
(g)
True; subtracting one equation from another isthe same as multiplying an equation by
(h)
False; the second row corresponds to theequation
12
001
x x
+ = −
or 0 =
1 which is false.
Section 1.2Exercise Set 1.21. (a)
The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.
(b)
The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

SSM:
Elementary Linear Algebra
Section 1.2

3

(c)
The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.
(d)
The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.
(e)
The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.
(f)
The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.
(g)
The matrix is in row echelon form.
3. (a)
The matrix corresponds to the system
123233
347225
x x x x x x
+ =+ ==
or
123233
734225
x x x x x x
= + = =
.Thus
3
5,
x
=

2
2258(),
x
= =
and
1
7384537()().
x
= + − =
The solution is
1
37,
x
= −

2
8,
x
= −

3
5.
x
=

(b)
The matrix corresponds to the system
13423434
8564932
x x x x x x x x
+ =+ =+ =
or
13423434
6853492
x x x x x x x x
= += +=
.Let
4
,
x
=
then
3
2,
x
=

2
3429135(),
x t t
= + =
and
1
68251310().
x t t
= + =
The solutionis
1
1310,
x
=

2
135,
x
=

3
2,
x
= − +

4
.
x
=

(c)
The matrix corresponds to the system
123534545
72836539
x x x x x x x x x
+ − = + + =+ =
or
123534545
37285693
x x x x x x x x x
= + += =
Let
2
x s
=
and
5
,
x
=
then
4
93,
x
=

3
593634(),
x t t
= = − −
and
1
3723487211().
x s t t s
= + − − + = +
The solution is
1
7211,
x s
= +

2
,
x s
=

3
34,
x
= −

4
39,
x
= − +

5
.
x
=

(d)
The last line of the matrix corresponds to theequation
123
0001,
x x x
+ + =
which is notsatisfied by any values of
12
,,
x x
and
3
,
x
so the system is inconsistent.
5.
The augmented matrix is8112312137104.
3times the first row to the third row.81120591010214
Multiply the second row by
1.81120591010214
Add 10 times the second row to the third row.811205910052104
Multiply the third row by152.
811205910012
Add 5 times the third row to the second row and
2 times the third row to the first row.011400110012
1 times the second row to the first row.003100110012
The solution is
123
312,,.
x x x
= = =

7.
The augmented matrix is11211212221241130033.