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Elementary Linear Algebra With Applications 10e Student Solutions ManualRatings: (0)|Views: 88|Likes: 2

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/78643152/Elementary-Linear-Algebra-With-Applications-10e-Student-Solutions-Manual

11/27/2012

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1

Chapter 1Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

Section 1.1Exercise Set 1.11.

(a), (c), and (f) are linear equations in

1

,

x

2

,

x

and

3

.

x

(b) is not linear because of the term

13

.

x x

(d) is not linear because of the term

2

.

x

−

(e) is not linear because of the term

351 /

.

x

3.

(a) and (d) are linear systems.(b) is not a linear system because the first and second equations are not linear.(c) is not a linear system because the second equation is not linear.

5.

By inspection, (a) and (d) are both consistent;

1

3,

x

=

234

221,,

x x x

= = − =

is a solution of (a) and

1234

1322,,,

x x x x

= = = =

is a solution of (d). Note that both systems have infinitely many solutions.

7.

(a), (d), and (e) are solutions.(b) and (c) do not satisfy any of the equations.

9. (a)

7535377

x y x y

− == +

Let

y

=

t

. The solution is5377

x y y t

= +=

(b)

12341234

8256115314848

x x x x x x x x

− + − + == − + −

Let

23

,,

x r x s

= =

and

4

.

x t

=

The solution is

1

15314848

x r s t

= − + −

234

x r x s x t

===

11. (a)

002304011

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

corresponds to

1122

203401.

x x x x

=− ==

Chapter 1:

Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

SSM:

Elementary Linear Algebra

2

(b)

305273140721

⎡ ⎤

−

⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

corresponds to

1312323

32574327.

x x x x x x x

− =+ + = −− + =

(c)

7352101241

⎡ ⎤

−

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

corresponds to

1234123

7235241

x x x x x x x

+ + − =+ + =

.

(d)

00071000120003100014

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

corresponds to

1234

7234.

x x x x

== −==

13. (a)

The augmented matrix for

111

263893

x x x

− === −

is623893.

⎡ ⎤

−

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

(b)

The augmented matrix for

12323

63451

x x x x x

− + =− =

is63140511.

⎡ ⎤

−

⎢ ⎥⎣

−

⎦

(c)

The augmented matrix for

24512312345

2303162236

x x x x x x x x x x x

− + =− − + = −+ − + − =

is003021300111636212.

⎡ ⎤

−

⎢ ⎥

−− −

⎢ ⎥

−−

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

(d)

The augmented matrix for

15

7

x x

− =

is[1 0 0 0

−

1 7].

15.

If (

a

,

b

,

c

) is a solution of the system, then

2111

,

ax bx c y

+ + =

2222

,

ax bx c y

+ + =

and

2333

ax bx c y

+ + =

which simply means that thepoints are on the curve.

17.

The solutions of

12

x kx c

+ =

are

1

,

x c kt

= −

2

x t

=

where

t

is any real number. If thesesatisfy

12

,

x lx d

+ =

then

c

−

kt

+

lt

=

d

or

c

−

d

= (

k

−

l

)

t

for all real numbers

t

. Inparticular, if

t

= 0, then

c

=

d

, and if

t

= 1, then

k

=

l

.

True/False 1.1(a)

True;

12

0

n

x x x

= = = =

will be a solution.

(b)

False; only multiplication by nonzero constantsis acceptable.

(c)

True; if

k

= 6 the system has infinitely manysolutions, while if

k

≠

6, the system has nosolution.

(d)

True; the equation can be solved for one variablein terms of the other(s), yielding parametricequations that give infinitely many solutions.

(e)

False; the system 357292061014

x y x y x y

− = −+ =− = −

has thesolution

x

= 1,

y

= 2.

(f)

False; multiplying an equation by a nonzeroconstant

c

does not change the solutions of thesystem.

(g)

True; subtracting one equation from another isthe same as multiplying an equation by

−

1 andadding it to another.

(h)

False; the second row corresponds to theequation

12

001

x x

+ = −

or 0 =

−

1 which is false.

Section 1.2Exercise Set 1.21. (a)

The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

(b)

The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

SSM:

Elementary Linear Algebra

Section 1.2

3

(c)

The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

(d)

The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

(e)

The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

(f)

The matrix is in both row echelon andreduced row echelon form.

(g)

The matrix is in row echelon form.

3. (a)

The matrix corresponds to the system

123233

347225

x x x x x x

− + =+ ==

or

123233

734225

x x x x x x

= + −= −=

.Thus

3

5,

x

=

2

2258(),

x

= − = −

and

1

7384537()().

x

= + − − = −

The solution is

1

37,

x

= −

2

8,

x

= −

3

5.

x

=

(b)

The matrix corresponds to the system

13423434

8564932

x x x x x x x x

+ − =+ − =+ =

or

13423434

6853492

x x x x x x x x

= − += − += −

.Let

4

,

x t

=

then

3

2,

x t

= −

2

3429135(),

x t t t

= − − + = −

and

1

68251310().

x t t t

= − − + = −

The solutionis

1

1310,

x t

= −

2

135,

x t

= −

3

2,

x t

= − +

4

.

x t

=

(c)

The matrix corresponds to the system

123534545

72836539

x x x x x x x x x

+ − − = −+ + =+ =

or

123534545

37285693

x x x x x x x x x

= − − + += − −= −

Let

2

x s

=

and

5

,

x t

=

then

4

93,

x t

= −

3

593634(),

x t t t

= − − − = − −

and

1

3723487211().

x s t t s t

= − − + − − + = − + −

The solution is

1

7211,

x s t

= − + −

2

,

x s

=

3

34,

x t

= − −

4

39,

x t

= − +

5

.

x t

=

(d)

The last line of the matrix corresponds to theequation

123

0001,

x x x

+ + =

which is notsatisfied by any values of

12

,,

x x

and

3

,

x

so the system is inconsistent.

5.

The augmented matrix is8112312137104.

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

− −

⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Add the first row to the second row and add

−

3times the first row to the third row.81120591010214

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

−

⎢ ⎥

−− −

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Multiply the second row by

−

1.81120591010214

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

− −

⎢ ⎥

−− −

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Add 10 times the second row to the third row.811205910052104

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

− −

⎢ ⎥

− −

⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Multiply the third row by152.

−

811205910012

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥

− −

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Add 5 times the third row to the second row and

−

2 times the third row to the first row.011400110012

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Add

−

1 times the second row to the first row.003100110012

⎡ ⎤⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

The solution is

123

312,,.

x x x

= = =

7.

The augmented matrix is11211212221241130033.

⎡ ⎤

− − −

⎢ ⎥

− − −

⎢ ⎥

− −

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥

− −

⎣ ⎦

Add

−

2 times the first row to the second row, 1times the first row to the third row, and

−

3 timesthe first row to the fourth row.

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