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Published by: Adamito on Nov 11, 2008
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11/18/2012

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1
  
 
   
ا ــ ا ــ ةا
 
. 
I(
  :
1
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( )
: :,*
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×
 
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( )
,
a b
    
; ;*
a b a b a b
Τ
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*
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( )
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*
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 :
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: 
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=
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a b a c b ca b c a b c a c b
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2
:
1
     
, , , ,
»    
2
    
+
    
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2
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.
3
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3 2
و 
V  
.
4
      
3 2
و 
V  
.
5
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3
.
6
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( )
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( )
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.
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 
.   
( )
,
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( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
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+ = +=
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 E 
.
 E 
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ο 
 
( )
,
 A E E 
 : 
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
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ο 
=
    
( )
,
 A E E 
.
9
 
Τ
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0
 H 
   
O
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O
. 
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o
      
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و 
Τ
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, , ,, , ,
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h h h R R R
α β α β 
ο ο ο 
++
Τ Τ =Τ==
 
 
10

*
 
  : 
( )
( )
2 4 3 2
, 3*
a b a b a a a b
= +
    
.
11
  
{ }
1,2,3,6
 E 
=
     
" "
    
 E 
.         
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( )
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.
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      
 E 
  
 E 
. 
" "
    
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. 
3
      :
a(
 :
 
 E 
     
*
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S
   
( )
S E
.  
S
   
( )
,*
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( )
( )
2
,*
 x y S x y S
 
b(
:
1
+
   
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,
×
2
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,
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3
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   
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,
×
»
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S
   
( )
,*
 E 
 
*
    
S
. 
 
 
2
II(
    :
1
 :
 
a(
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 
 
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*
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 E 
.
1
(   
*
  
 E 
   
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
, ,* * * *
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=
2
(   
*
  
 E 
   
( )
( )
2
,* *
a b E a b b a
=
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*
  : 
( )
* * * *
a b c a b c
=
b(
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1
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7
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9
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I
.(.  )
7
( )
9
: (     
( )
,
F
: 
h
و 
 g 
و 
f  
 
( )
,
F
.  :
( ) ( )
 f g h f g h
+ + = + +
 : 
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
 f g h x f g h x
+ + = + +
 : 
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
 x X f g h x f x g h x f x g x h x f x g x h x f g x h x f g h x
+ + = + += + += + += + += + +
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.(
( ) ( )
 f g h f g h
+ + = + +
    
( )
,
F
.  
ο 
  
  
u
 
v
 
w
  
  : 
( ) ( )
u v w u v w
t t ot t t
ο ο ο 
=
 
 : 
( )
( ) ( )
( )
u v w u v wu v wu v w u v wu v w
t o t t t t t t t t t
ο ο ο ο ο 
+++ + + +
== = ==
 )   
3
.(:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
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t t t t t t t t t 
ο ο ο ο 
Τ =
 

o
  
.
 :
.      
3
. 
( )
, ,
i j h
  .   .
 
i j j i
=

" "
  .
 
( )
i j j h j i
= =
 
  
( )
0 0
i j j i
= =
 
( ) ( )
i j j i j j
  
" "
) (   
3
.
  :
  
*
 
  : 
*
 x y x y xy
= + +
   
*
..: :
( )
( )
2
,*
 x y x y x y xy
= + +
 
*
 y x yx y x
= + + =

* *
 x y y x
=
 
*
 ..: 
 z
و 
 y 
و 
 
   : 
( ) ( )
* * * *
 x y z x y z
=
 : 
( ) ( )( )( )
* * *1
 x y z x y xy z x y xy z x y xy z x y xy z xz yz xyz
= + += + + + + + += + + + + + +
  : 
( ) ( )( )( )
* * *2
 x y z x y z yz x y z yz x y z yz x y z yz xy xz xyz
= + += + + + + + += + + + + + +
   )
2
( )
1
( 
*
 : 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
, ,* * * *
 x y z x y z x y z
=
c(
   : :
   : 
 E F G
 :
( ) ( )
ho gof hog o
=
    
o
 .  :
( ) ( )
ho gof hog o
=
 : 
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
 x E ho gof x hog of x
=
 
 x
 
( ) ( ) ( )
h z
و 
 g y
و 
f x
= = =
 : 
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )
hog of x hog f x hog yh g y h z
= == = =
  : 
( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
ho gof x h gof xh g f x h g yh z
== == =
 : 
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
 x E hog of x ho gof x
=
 :
( ) ( )
hog of ho go
=
 
 
3
  :
 
( )
,
 A E E 
    
 E 
 
 E 
. 
" "
o
     
( )
,
 A E E 
.
2
 :
a(
 :
 
*
    
 E 
. 
e
.  
e
  
 E 
  
*
   
( )
,*
 E 
   : 
( )
* *
 x E e x x et x e x
= =
 :
  
*
  
e
     :
( )
*
 x E x e x
=
b(
:

0
     
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , , , ,
+ + + + +
»    

1
     
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , , , ,
× × × × ×
»    
0
     :
( ) ( )
3 2
, , ,
V
+ +
   
( )
( )
,
P
 E 
   
( )
( )
,
P
   
( )
( )
,
P

: 0
 x
θ 
   
( )
( )
, ,
F
+

: 1
 f x
   
( )
( )
, ,
F
×
 
:
 E 
 Id x x
  
( ) ( )
( )
, ,
 E
 foId Id of f A E E o
= =
 :
  
*
 
*
  : 
( )
( )
*2
,*
b
a b a b a
=
 :
( )
( )
* 1
1 1*
a a a a
= =
 :
1 1 1*
a
a
= =

1
   .   )
1
(  
1
   .
 :
  
e
    
( )
,*
 E 
   
( )
*
 x E x e x
=
  
e
    
( )
,*
 E 
  
( )
*
 x E e x x
=
 
e
      
 E 
  .
c(
    :
 :
 
*
    
 E 
.  
*
    .
 :
  
*
   
e
و 
 
e
  
e
:
*
e e e
=
 
e
  
e
:
*
e e e
=

e e
=
    ) .  .(
    :  )
1
:(
 
*
  
  : 
( )
( )
2
, 4 4 20*
 x y x y xy x y
= +
 
*
 .  
e
 
 :
( )
* *
 x e x x e x
= =
  
*
 .     
e
 : 
( )
*
 x e x x
=
 :
( ) ( )( ) ( )
4 4 20 0*5 4 20 05 0 520 4 0 5
 x e x x x ex e x x x x e ee ee
= ⇔ − + =− + =
= =
= =

5
e
=
   
*
.
 )
2
:(
  
*
  
 :
( )
, 4 1*
 x y x y x y
= +
 
*
 .  
e
 
 
( )
* *
 x x e e x x
= =
 :
( )
* *
 x x e x et e x x
= =
 : 
( ) ( )
4 1*
 x e x x x e x x
= + =
 
( )
3 1 03 01 0
 x e xe
+ ==
=
   .
*
    
.
3
 :
a(
 :
 
*
    
 E 
.  
*
   
e
.   
 x
 
 E 
    
*
    
 x
 
 E 
 : 
* *
 x x x x e
= =
 :
  
*
    .
b(
:
   
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , ,
+ + + +
»   
 
 x
   
 x
.
 
( ) ( ) ( )
* * *
, ; , ; ,
× × ×
»
  
 x
   
1
 x
. :
1 1. . 1
 x x x x
= =
 
 
( )
,
 B E E 
   
 E 
 
 E 
.

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