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11/18/2012

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1
  

  
ا ــ ا ــ ةا

.
I(
  :
1
 :



E
   .    
E
  
E

E

( )
: :,*
f E E a b a b
×

 :

( )
,
f a b
  
( )
,
a b
   
; ;*
a b a b a b
Τ
 
*
   
E
 
( )
,*
E
 
E
 
*
.
 :

*
   
E
:
( )
( )
4
, , ,* *
a ba b c d E a c b c
=
=
=
:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , ,* *
a ba c b d f a c f b c a c b d
=
=
=
=
=
(* :
( )
( )
3
* *, ,* *
a b a c b ca b c a b c a c b
=
=
=
=

2
:
1
     
, , , ,
»    
2
   
+
   
.  
( )
2
,
a b
 :
( )
a b
+
×

( )
a b
×
.
3
       
3 2
و
V
.
4
      
3 2
و
V
.
5
     
3
.
6

E
   
( )
P
  
E
.       
( )
P
.
7

X
 
.
( )
,
F
   
X

.   
( )
,
F
  :
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
. .
x X f g x f x g x f g x f x g x
+ = +=
   
( )
,
F
.
8

( )
,
A E E
  
E

E
.
E
   .
ο
 
( )
,
A E E
 :
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
x E f g x f g x
ο
=
   
( )
,
A E E
.
9

Τ
   .
0
H
   
O
.
0
R
     
O
.
" "
o
     
0 0
R
و
H
و
Τ
.:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,, , ,
u v u vO R O R O RRo o o
h h h R R R
α β α β
ο ο ο
++
Τ Τ =Τ==
 

10

*
 
  :
( )
( )
2 4 3 2
, 3*
a b a b a a a b
= +
    
.
11
 
{ }
1,2,3,6
E
=
    
" "
   
E
.        
E

( )
,
E v
.
6321
63211 66222 63633 66666
     
E
  
E
. 
" "
   
E
.
3
      :
a(
 :

E
    
*
.
S
  
( )
S E
. 
S
  
( )
,*
E
   :
( )
( )
2
,*
x y S x y S

b(
:
1
+
  
( )
,
×
2
   
( )
,
×
3
  :
{ }
/ 1
U z z
= =
»

( )
( )
2
, : . . 1.1 1
z z U z z z z
= = =
:
( )
( )
2
, :
z z U zz

  
( )
,
×
»
 :

S
  
( )
,*
E

*
   
S
.

2
II(
    :
1
 :

a(
 :



*
   
E
.
1
(  
*
 
E
   
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
, ,* * * *
a b c E a b c a b c
=
2
(  
*
 
E
   
( )
( )
2
,* *
a b E a b b a
=
 :
  
*
  :
( )
* * * *
a b c a b c
=
b(
:
)
1
(,)
3
(,)
6
(,)
7
( )
9
(       )
I
.(.  )
7
( )
9
: (    
( )
,
F
:
h
و
g
و
f

( )
,
F
.  :
( ) ( )
f g h f g h
+ + = + +
 :
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
f g h x f g h x
+ + = + +
 :
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
x X f g h x f x g h x f x g x h x f x g x h x f g x h x f g h x
+ + = + += + += + += + += + +
)   
.(
( ) ( )
f g h f g h
+ + = + +
   
( )
,
F
. 
ο
 
 
u

v

w

  :
( ) ( )
u v w u v w
t t ot t t
ο ο ο
=
 
 :
( )
( ) ( )
( )
u v w u v wu v wu v w u v wu v w
t o t t t t t t t t t
ο ο ο ο ο
+++ + + +
== = ==
)   
3
.(:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
, , ;
u v w u v w u v w
t t t t t t t t t
ο ο ο ο
Τ =
 

o
 
.
 :
.      
3
.
( )
, ,
i j h
  .   .

i j j i
=

" "
  .

( )
i j j h j i
= =
 

( )
0 0
i j j i
= =

( ) ( )
i j j i j j

" "
) (  
3
.
  :
 
*
 
  :
*
x y x y xy
= + +
   
*
..: :
( )
( )
2
,*
x y x y x y xy
= + +

*
y x yx y x
= + + =

* *
x y y x
=

*
 ..:
z
و
y
و

   :
( ) ( )
* * * *
x y z x y z
=
 :
( ) ( )( )( )
* * *1
x y z x y xy z x y xy z x y xy z x y xy z xz yz xyz
= + += + + + + + += + + + + + +
 :
( ) ( )( )( )
* * *2
x y z x y z yz x y z yz x y z yz x y z yz xy xz xyz
= + += + + + + + += + + + + + +
  )
2
( )
1
(
*
 :
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
, ,* * * *
x y z x y z x y z
=
c(
   : :
   :
E F G
 :
( ) ( )
ho gof hog o
=
   
o
 .  :
( ) ( )
ho gof hog o
=
 :
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
x E ho gof x hog of x
=

x

( ) ( ) ( )
h z
و
g y
و
f x
= = =
 :
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )
hog of x hog f x hog yh g y h z
= == = =
 :
( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
ho gof x h gof xh g f x h g yh z
== == =
:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
x E hog of x ho gof x
=
 :
( ) ( )
hog of ho go
=

3
  :

( )
,
A E E
   
E

E
.
" "
o
    
( )
,
A E E
.
2
 :
a(
 :

*
   
E
.
e
. 
e
  
E
 
*
  
( )
,*
E
   :
( )
* *
x E e x x et x e x
= =
 :
  
*
 
e
     :
( )
*
x E x e x
=
b(
:

0
     
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , , , ,
+ + + + +
»    

1
     
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , , , ,
× × × × ×
»    
0
     :
( ) ( )
3 2
, , ,
V
+ +
   
( )
( )
,
P
E
   
( )
( )
,
P
  
( )
( )
,
P

: 0
x
θ
   
( )
( )
, ,
F
+

: 1
f x
   
( )
( )
, ,
F
×
 
:
E
Id x x
  
( ) ( )
( )
, ,
E
foId Id of f A E E o
= =
 :
 
*
 
*
  :
( )
( )
*2
,*
b
a b a b a
=
 :
( )
( )
* 1
1 1*
a a a a
= =
 :
1 1 1*
a
a
= =

1
   .   )
1
( 
1
   .
 :
 
e
    
( )
,*
E
  
( )
*
x E x e x
=
 
e
    
( )
,*
E
  
( )
*
x E e x x
=

e
     
E
  .
c(
    :
 :

*
   
E
.  
*
    .
 :
 
*
  
e
و

e
  
e
:
*
e e e
=

e
  
e
:
*
e e e
=

e e
=
    ) .  .(
    :  )
1
:(

*
  
  :
( )
( )
2
, 4 4 20*
x y x y xy x y
= +
 
*
 . 
e

 :
( )
* *
x e x x e x
= =
 
*
 .    
e
 :
( )
*
x e x x
=
 :
( ) ( )( ) ( )
4 4 20 0*5 4 20 05 0 520 4 0 5
x e x x x ex e x x x x e ee ee
= ⇔ − + =− + =
= =
= =

5
e
=
   
*
.
 )
2
:(
 
*
 
 :
( )
, 4 1*
x y x y x y
= +
 
*
 . 
e


( )
* *
x x e e x x
= =
 :
( )
* *
x x e x et e x x
= =
 :
( ) ( )
4 1*
x e x x x e x x
= + =

( )
3 1 03 01 0
x e xe
+ ==
=
  .
*
    
.
3
 :
a(
 :

*
   
E
. 
*
  
e
.  
x

E
   
*
   
x

E
 :
* *
x x x x e
= =
 :
  
*
    .
b(
:
  
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , , , ,
+ + + +
»   
 
x
  
x
.

( ) ( ) ( )
* * *
, ; , ; ,
× × ×
»
 
x
  
1
x
. :
1 1. . 1
x x x x
= =


( )
,
B E E
  
E

E
.