A.C. HOLT, E.W. DAVIS, H. PUTHOFF
matter-energy fields. A traversable wormhole isessentially a tunnel through space-time connecting anentrance portal to an exit portal with the portals notpossessing an event horizon and the tunnel notpossessing a singularity.
It is possible that man-madewormholes can be engineered to keep the gravitationaltidal forces to a comfortable minimum.Natural wormholes may be detected by astronomicalsearches for the gravitational lens effect they induce onbackground star light.
If the conditions for wormholesexist in space, it may be possible to detect andeventually confirm their existence. In any case, we havesome insight into techniques for artificially generatingsmall wormholes which, according to presentunderstanding, could in principle be used to sendinformation faster than the speed of light, and perhapseventually vehicles and beings as well.
The distance to even the nearest star makes theprospects for human interstellar travel unappealing withcurrent or even proposed advanced propulsioncapabilities (except for those few individuals willing tospend most of their life on such a trip). In addition,getting the development and operations fundingneeded for a crewed interstellar vehicle requiring 30 to50 years or more to complete its mission, would beextremely challenging, even with substantial commercialand international funding and interest. A breakthroughin propulsion, which as a minimum provides apropellentless propulsion augmentation, would helptremendously.Interstellar probe missions venturing out intointerstellar space can be accomplished without a majorbreakthrough in propellantless propulsion. However, amajor physics breakthrough coupled with the quick development, testing and implementation of newpropellantless propulsion technology could make aprobe mission to another star system immediatelyfeasible, and would jump-start a whole new round of Solar System probe exploration.In recent testing, ultrahigh-intensity, peta/eta-watttabletop lasers have achieved extreme electric andmagnetic fields, pressure, temperature and space-timecurvature that may only be found close to a black holehorizon.
In other experiments, non-local(instantaneous) communication between two beams of light (spin direction) has been experimentallydemonstrated. The quantum mechanical couplingbetween the photons in the beam was random in theseexperiments. To be useful, the information must be ableto be transmitted non-locally on a planned basis.These experiments provide inspiration for the planningand conduct of experiments on the ground and perhapsin-space to take advantage of microgravity and otherspace environment conditions. The examples of spaceexperiment approaches described below include one ormore test approaches directed at expanding ourunderstanding of the physics which may somedayallow a vehicle and humans to be transported at speedsfaster than the speed of light. Alcubierre has shown inhis theoretical paper that by using the theory of GeneralRelativity and negative matter-energy fields, it ispossible to create a bubble around a vehicle, whichwould allow it to move at a velocity faster than thespeed of light. In addition, no adverse differences intime or aging would be experienced by the participants,i.e. the travelers would not return to Earth to find noone they knew left alive.
Materials and Spinning and Pulsed Fields
Great progress has been made in recent years in thedevelopment of new materials, at meso-, micro- andnano- scale levels. These materials demonstrate newproperties and unusual reactions to various fields andforces. The discovery and production of carbon nano-tubes (C
and other carbon configurations) is oneexample of these new materials. Rice University and theNASA Johnson Space Center are jointly workingtogether to study and improve the production of nano-tubes for various space-related applications.Our knowledge of extreme field/plasma interactions alsocontinues to grow. Extensive studies and experimentalresearch have been conducted in national and privatelaboratories (i.e., laser research, acceleratordevelopments, fusion research, etc.); in-situ (i.e., upperatmosphere, magnetosphere and interplanetary space)and from ground and space observatories andinstruments. The Earth’s ionosphere/magnetosphere;the Sun’s photosphere, chromosphere and corona; anddistant astrophysical objects (stars, galaxies, and earlyuniverse epochs) have resulted in the identification of new phenomena, including massive energy sourceswhich challenge our understanding of physics (gammaray bursters, etc). The physics of the Sun’s magneticfields and their role in the generation of giant solar flareeruptions (magnetic field line merging and annihilation,etc.) continued to be studied and refined.These research results are continuing to point to theimportance of the configuration and motion of fieldsand plasmas in star systems, galaxies and the universeas a whole. Anomalies of field/plasma persistence havebeen observed in high-field-strength, plasma systemstested at national laboratories. The phenomena of ball