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Introduction of Linguistics ( Makalah )

Introduction of Linguistics ( Makalah )

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Published by: AtiQa on Jan 19, 2012
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06/30/2013

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CHAPTER IPREFACE
1.1 Background
Language is arguably what most obviously distinguishes humans from allother species. Linguistics involves the study of that system of communicationunderlying everyday .Many people in this world knowing the linguist and linguistics. But, they just know it that the Linguist is the persons who can speaks many languages. LikeLanguage teacher or Guides. Or they will tell us that Linguistics is the knowledgeof the languages. They didn¶t know what is the right answer and what is the partof the linguistics.Linguistics are the scientific study of natural language. Linguisticsconcerns itself with describing and explaining the nature of human language. Its primary goal is to learn about the 'natural' language that humans use every day andhow it works. Linguists ask such fundamental questions as: What aspects of language are universal for all humans? How can we account for the remarkablegrammatical similarities between languages as apparently diverse as English,Japanese and Arabic? What are the rules of grammar that we language usersemploy, and how do we come to 'know' them? To what extent is the structure of language related to how we think about the world around us? A
linguist 
, then,here refers to a linguistics expert who seeks to answer such questions, rather thansomeone who is multilingual.
1.2 Purpose of the Compilation
The purpose of this Linguistics compilations is to compilated the lesson of the linguistics that ever taught by the lecture for students. And completed with thereference, from many book and searched in internet.
 
CHAPTER IILINGUISTICS
2.1 Linguist
linguist 
is used to describe someone who either studies the field or useslinguistic methodologies to study groups of languages or particular languages.Outside the field, this term is commonly used to refer to people who speak manylanguages or have a great vocabulary.A
linguist 
, then, here refers to a linguistics expert who seeks to answer such questions, rather than someone who is multilingual.
2.2 Linguistics
Linguistics is the
 scientific
study of 
natural language
and is one of thefour subfield of 
anthropology
. Linguistics encompasses a number of sub-fields.An important topical division is between the study of language structure(
 grammar 
) and the study of 
meaning 
(
 semantics
and
 pragmatics
). Grammar encompasses
morphology
(the formation and composition of 
words
),
 syntax
(therules that determine how words combine into
 phrase
and
 sentences
) and
 phonology
(the study of sound systems and abstract sound units).
 Phonetics
is arelated branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speechsounds(
 phones
), non-speech sounds, and how they are produced and
 perceived 
.Other sub-disciplines of linguistics include the following:
evolutionary linguistics
,which considers the origins of language;
historical linguistics
, which exploreslanguage change;
 sociolinguistics
, which looks at the relation between linguisticvariation and social structures;
 psycholinguistics
, which explores therepresentation and functioning of language in the mind;
neurolinguistics
, whichlooks at the representation of language in the brain;
language acquisition
, whichconsiders how children acquire their first language and how children and adultsacquire and learn their second and subsequent languages; and
discourse analysis
,which is concerned with the structure of texts and conversations, and
 pragmatics
 
 
with how meaning is transmitted based on a combination of linguisticcompetence, non-linguistic knowledge, and the context of the speech act.Linguistics is narrowly defined as the scientific approach to the study of language, but language can be approached from a variety of directions, and anumber of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to it and influence its study.
emiotics
, for example, is a related field concerned with the general study of signsand symbols both in language and outside of it.
 Literary theorists
study the use of language in artistic
literature
. Linguistics additionally draws on work from suchdiverse fields as
 psychology
,
 speech-language pathology
,
informatics
,
computer  science
,
 philosophy
,
biology
,
human anatomy
,
neuroscience
,
 sociology
,
anthropology
, and
acoustics.
Within the field,
linguist 
is used to describe someone who either studiesthe field or uses linguistic methodologies to study groups of languages or  particular languages. Outside the field, this term is commonly used to refer to people who speak many languages or have a great vocabulary.

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