In this survey, Jung places emphasis on the means by which god was symbolized. Hewonders how such symbols should be understood. It is here that a complex paradoxappear when one encounters the story of Job: Job expected help from God againstGod. This fact presupposes, in Jung's opinion, a similar conception of the opposites inGod.
Jung begins by pointing out the differences between what is considered to be aphysical fact and religious belief. He notes that most of the problem rests upon therequirement for material existence of such facts. If, he suggests, we replace the notionof a physical fact with that of a
then we have a more amiable situation.Psychic facts are what could be called facts based upon faith and religiousstatements are of this order--i.e., they refer without exception to things which cannotbe established as physical facts--otherwise they would fall in the domain of naturalsciences. Thus the emphasis is not placed on the physical actuality of a thing but uponits
.The fact that religious statements often conflict with observed physical phenomenaproves that, in contrast to physical perception, the psyche is autonomous and thatpsychic experience is to a certain extent independent of physical data. Thus he writes:"The psyche is an autonomous factor, and religious statements are psychic confessionswhich in the last resort are based on unconscious, i.e., on transcendental, processes."These are not visible to the physical senses but still influence human consciousness. Thuswhenever we speak of religious contents we move into a world of image, metaphor,and imagination. Thus ideas of god and the like manipulate human images and ideaswhich are dependent upon the human imagination and its temporal and spatiallocations and cannot helped being manipulated and altered several times over thecourse of human history. To Jung all of these images relate to a few basic principlesor archetypes. And archetypes are unknowable--we can only know theirmanifestations in culture.So when we move into this realm of the metaphysical, we must keep in mind that weare entering the world of images and imagination and that none of our reflection willactually touch upon, as Jung calls it, "the essence of the Unknowable." Still he remindsus that we must also remember that the archetypes exist on an emotional foundationwhich is unassailable by reason (shades of James), i.e., we are dealing with psychicfacts which logic can overlook but not eliminate. We are considering statements of the