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JD Hanawalt, "Corrosion studies of magnesium and its alloys" (1942)

JD Hanawalt, "Corrosion studies of magnesium and its alloys" (1942)

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Published by Patrick Bowen
A classic paper by JD Hanawalt and coworkers detailing some of the first study of magnesium corrosion. Presented in 1941 at the Philadelphia meeting of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers (AIME), published by the Institute of Metals Division in 1942 in Volume 147 of the Transactions of the AIME.
A classic paper by JD Hanawalt and coworkers detailing some of the first study of magnesium corrosion. Presented in 1941 at the Philadelphia meeting of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers (AIME), published by the Institute of Metals Division in 1942 in Volume 147 of the Transactions of the AIME.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Patrick Bowen on Jan 19, 2012
Copyright:Public Domain

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03/19/2014

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Corrosion
St
udies
or
Magn
es
ium
and
Its
Allo
ys
HY
J.
l ),l
[ANA
1\'AI.T,
*
M
I
;
~IJ3E
R
A.I.M.E.
,
c.
E.
NELSON*
AN
D
J.
A.
P
io:
LOL
TBET*
(
Phi
l
ade
lphi
aM
eet
i
ng,
Oct
o
ber
l94
r)
T11
E
s
ubj
ecto[
th
e
sa
lt
-
water
corrosion resistance o[
magn
es
ium
a
ll
oys
issomewh
at
like
that
of
th
e
pitt
in
gofs
tainl
esss
te
elsin
that
it
in
volves arel
at
ively sma
ll
per
ce;1tageof
th
e appli
ca
tions
but
recei
_ve
sa
mu
chgr
ea
ter
pr
oportionof
the
p
ubh
e~ty
.
Ac
tuall
ymagnesiuma
ll
oysarc
in usc
in
man
y exte
ri
orappli
ca
tionsaswe
ll
as
int
e
ri
or with no
tr
oublefromco
rr
osion. ·
Magnc
;
ium
and itsa
ll
oys
h
ave
as
trikin
g
stabi
lit
y
aga
in
st
atm
osp
heric a
tta
ck,bcing
far
s
uperi
ortoiron.
Spec
imens
expo
sed
unpr
o
te
cted toa
tmo:phcr
ic
weat
heringfor
10
year
s showo
nl
yas
up
errtcials
ur
facefilm fo
rmati
on.
Th
eb
as
ic
natur
e of m
ag
nes
ium
and
of
it
s
imp
o
rtan
t alloysis
th
at
th
ey
arealso r
esistant
toth
e
atta
ckof
sa
lt
water
even
in
an
unpr
otec
teds
tat
e,
giving
s
ub
stantia
ll
ynol
oss
inweig
ht
after
one
yea
rofa
lt
ernate
imm
ersion in3perce
ntNaC
Isolution
(Fig.
r).
Th
isbasicbeh
avior
i
s.
~f
~
c
n
ma
skedb
eca
useof
the
extreme
scnstttvtty of
th
ese
all
oys
toce
rt
ain
impuri
ties and co
mbinati
onsof im pu
ri
tics.
It
isknown,
andthe
s
ubj
ect
o[
in
creasing e
mpha
si
s,
that
hig
her
purit
yl
eads
genera
ll
yto
greater
s
tabilit
yfor
man
y
mat
erials,non
met
allicas
we
ll
asmetallic.
ll
o\\'cver,a r
ev
i
ew
of thelite
ratur
e
011
th
e corrosion
factors
in m
ag
nesiumallo
ys
showsth
at
alm
ost
a
ll
researchers workedwithbase me
tal
in
which m
eta
llic
impuriti
es va
ri
edinunco
ntr
o
ll
edamo
unt
s.
Th
e
major
f
ac
tor,
that
of m
eta
lli
c
impuritie
s,
pr
oba
bl
y
M
an
uscri
pt
r
ece
ived
at
the o
fli
ccoftheInsti
tut
e
Dec.
I
.L
1
1)-.\0:
revi
se
dAtJril
q,
'
.9
~
1 '
·
l
ssul'
d
:l
S
T.
P.
I
J
.
~
.
~
in
MET
ALS
TI
~C
II
N
(
tU
!<;v,
St.
:
pt
l'm
lK·!·.'
'>
·1'·
*TheDow
C'
hc
nnca
l
C o
mp:~ny,
M1
uland,
Mi
chi
gan.
grea
tly
ove
rs
hadow
edthe e
ff
ects
of
minor
one
ssuch
as
flu
xinclusions,no
nmet
a
lli
c
impuriti
es
,poros
ity,
meta
ll
ogra
phics
tate
,w
hi
ch
th
ese
researchers
pr
es
um
edto s
tud
y.
In
th
e
pr
ese
nt
in
ves
tigati
on
th
e
rtr
st
observat
ionof
int
erest is
th
atwhereas
ma
gnes
ium
of
commercial
purit
y(99
·9
per
ce
nt
pur
e)
hasacorrosion
rat
ein
altern
a
te
immer
sion in
.)
perce
nt
NaC
Isolution
at
room te
mper
a
tur
e ofany
where
from
5
toroo
mg
.persq.em. per d
ay,th
e
cor
rosion r
ate
ofhigh-
purity
magn
es
ium
iso.rs
±
o.os
mg.
per
sq
.cm. perd
ay
.
Th
e
prin
ciplefo
ll
owed
in
the
experiment
s
wa
s
to
add
tosuch
ba
semagnesiumo
th
erele
ment
s,
singly
and
in
combination,incon trolled
<tnd
kn
own
amount
s
and to
obse
rve
thecorrosion beh
avi
orof
the
r
esultin
g a
ll
oy.
Th
ese
experime
nt
sshow
th
eexistence of
whatma
ybeca
ll
ed"tol
era
nce
limit
s"
o[m
ag
n
esium
andsome of
it
sall
oys
force
rt
ain
impuriti
es.
Th
e
ext
remelysma
ll
perce
nt
ages
of
impuriti
es
in
volved
and
thes
harpn
essof
th
e co
rr
osion disco
ntinuiti
es
app
ea
r tobe
qu
ite
unpr
edic
tab
le.Jnorder
to
carryon
thi
swork,it was necessarytode
ve
lopananal
ys
i·tec
hni
ques
uitabl
etotheproblem.
In
s
ome
cases
itwasnecessary
quantitativ
elyto analyze impu
ri
tiestoless
than
o.
oo
1 perce
nt. Th
eexperime
nt
alda
ta
tobe
pr
ese
nted
arc
ba
sedonobscrv<ttionofabo
ut
s
ooo
a
ll
oy
specimens
and
onmore
than
so,oooq
uantit
at
iveanalyses.
273
While
th
e
pr
im
ary
purp
ose of
th
is
pap
eris
topr
ese
nt
the experime
ntall
y
obta
ined
data
on
co
rros
ion
rat
es asafunctionof co
mp
osition,and
parti
cularly
to
demon
-
 
274
COHROSION
STU
DIES
OF
MAGNESIUMAND
IT
SALLOYS
~
tra
tethe
exi
sten
ce
ofsha
rp
toleran
ce
limitsfor
ce
r
ta
in i
mpurities
,
it
would
.-------------------
--
-.
~
/;
"-1
u
'"
~
"'
"'
~
Y.
0
<f)
"'
~
,..
,
n
at
ur
aUybe of
int
er
est
to
asce
rt
a
in
w
heth
erther
es
ult
s
can
be
exp
l
ainedin
terms
of
any
gcnera
.
ll
y
accept
ed
theories
of
co
r r
o~
t
o
t
l
behavio
rof
met
als.To
th
is
en
d,prelimi
nar
yr
es
ultarein
clu
ded
fromex
periments
on
sp
otsp
ec
tr
og
r
aph
ic
ana
l
ys
is
and
me
tal
lo
grap
hy,on
so
lu
tion
po
tentia
l
andover
vo
ltage
mea
s
urem
e
nt
s,
and
al
so
onel
ec
tr
onditTracti
on
st
udie
s of
the
al
l-im
porta
nt
rdmfo
rm
at
ions. Thegr
ea
t m
ajo
ri
ty
of
th
e alloy
co
mp
osi
tions
s
tu
di
ed
h
ave
been
m
ade
on 1
0o
-g
ram
mel
ts
,whichare
ju
stla
rg
eenoughfor anal
ys
isa
nd
corr
osi
on
sa
mp
les.
In
alater sec
tionof
thi
s
pap
er,h
ow
ever,arerepo
rt
ed
resul
ts
on
m
ate
rialm
ade
infu
ll
pr
od
u
ct
iotl scalemelts
and
fabri
c
at
ed
into
s
tandard
le
st bar
s,
fr
om which
the
eiTecton m
ec
h
an
icalp
ropert
iesof
expo
s
ure
to
sa
lt
so
l
uti
onhasbeen
obta
in
ed.
CO
l{HOSIO.
i\S
,\
FU
i\CTlON
OF
ALLOY
COM
PO
'
ITION
E
XPE
RIM
ENTAL
l\1ETHO
DS
A
1
!
agnesi
u.m
.
Pw
·ificat·
io
n Tec
hniqu
e
J\
I
eta
llicm
ag
n
es
iumas
ava
il
ab
le
com
mer
c
ia
llyh
as
thefollowingtypi
ca
la
nal
ys
is
PER
P
ER
CEN
T
CENT
Fe.
O.O
,S
O
AI
.
0.01
i\
i.
<o.
ooos
M
n.
0
.0
02
Cu.
<o.oos
l'b
..
<o
.oot
~i
0.00.1
Nn.
<o
.
oos
and
is
th
er
efo
re uns
uit
ab
le forthe
st
ud
y
of
co
rr
osionbeh
av
iorof
ma
g
nesiu
m
be
ca
u
se
ofthe
pre
se
nce of
seve
ralel
ements
in
amount
s
urt'l
ci
ent
gr
eat
ly
to
influ
en
ce
th
eco
rr
oion r
ate.
] li
gh
-pur
it
y
mag
n
esium
was
pr
oduce
dbyas
pec
i
al
va
po
r
iza
ti
on
tech
nique
,sin
ce
it
was
f
ound
that
ma
gn
es
ium
nonun
ifo
rm
in ir
on
co
ntent
was
o
btain
ed
bys
imp
le
va
p
or
i
zation
.
Goo
d
purit
y
magnes
ium
cou
ld
be
produced
at
a
sa
ti
s
fac
tory
r
ate
bydi
st
illing
the
meta
l
from
a
magnes
ium
-l
ead
aUoy
and
pass
ing
th
e
vapors
th
rough
a f
ll
ter.
After
p
uri
ftcation
the
mag
n
es
ium
is
st
ri
pped
from
th
e
co
ndensera
nd
r
ep
r
esentat
i
ve
sa
mpl
es are
taken
f
or
ro
utin
e
analyses
and
control
cor
roi
ontests.
Crysta
ls
of
t
hi
sp
uri
fied
 
J.
D.
H
ANAWALT,
C.
E.
NELSON AND
J.
A.
PELOUB
ET
2
75
magnesium
areonly s
up
erficia
ll
ycorroded
even
after
exposureofa
yea
ror moreto 3;
per
ce
nt
NaCLso
luti
on.Theoriginal
technical
ma
gne
siumwould bee
ntir
ely
corroded
away
inseveralclays
if
exposed
to
3
per
ce
nt
l'\aClso
luti
on.
A
typ
i
ca
lanal
ys
is ofthepuriftedm
ag
n
esium
pr
oduct follows:
Fe.
Ni.
AI..
Ca.
Cu.
PER
CE
NT
<
0.001
<0
.00
01
<o.
OOI
<0.
00
1
<o.OOOl
Na.
Mn
..
l'
b.
Si
...
P
ER
CEN
T
0.00
2
<o. ooos
<
0.0
1
<o.oor
Pur
eAttoy
Pr
oduc!ion
'f"
ec
llll
iqu
c
The
meltinga
nd
a
ll
oy
ingof thes
up
erp
urit
ymagnesiumalsoreq
uir
ed thed
eve
l
op
me
nt
of
a.
specialtechniqueanda
ca
reful
se
lec
ti
onof;tlloy
in
g
mat
e
ri
als, so
th
at
the
de
sir
ed
compositions co
ul
dbemadewith
out
co
n
ta
minationby o
th
er
unde
sirable eleme
nt
s.
It
wa
s discovered thats
up
erp
urit
ym
ag
n
es
ium
co
uld n
ot
beme
lt
ed
inan iron
or
stee
lcrucibleandthemoltenmetal co
uld
not be con
ta
cted with
tongs
or
ot
her
appa
r
at
usmadeof
these
materialsb
eca
useof
the
t
ende
ncy of
th
eall
oy
topick
up
iron.
Re
co
ur
sewasnecessary,
th
erefore,to m
ate
rialsof ar
efracto
rytype, ofw
hi
ch
solid
graphi
te
,
plumbag
o,
ca
rb
on-lined sili
co
nc
arb
i
de
(
Tercod
)
and
s
illimanit
eweremostsatisf
ac
tory.The gr
ea
t bulkof
the
a
ll
oys
for
the pr
ese
nt
experime
nt
swere m
ade
insillima
nit
e or
plumba
go
and
spectroscop
ica
ll
y
pure
graphit
e wasu
sed
for
st
irringrods,
sa
mpling
dev
icesand
th
e
rm
ocouple
we
ll
s.
JV
f
a.g
n
esium
m
ay
not
bemelt
ed
in
th
e
plumbag
o orsillima
nit
ec
rucibles
witho
ut
th
euseofanuxb
eca
use
the
metalwilla
tt
ac
kthecrucible
and
co
ntamin
ationofthemelt
wit
ha
luminum
,
ir
onandsiliconwillr
es
ult.Theuscof the
co
mm
on m
ag
nesium me
ltin
gflux
es
,how
ever
,
largely
preve
nt
s
thi
s
attac
ka
nd
at
thesa
metimeprotects
th
e a
ll
oy
fromoxida tion.Speciallypurifiednuxw
as
usedin
the
amo
unt
ofro
to30
perce
nt
oft
he
weig
ht
of
the
m
eta
l.
The
bulk
of
th
efluxw
as
melt
ed
in
th
e crucible a
nd
whenh
ot
the
s
li
g
htl
y preh
eated
pieces of
the
weighed
ma
gn
esium
a
nd
necessary a
ll
oy
in
gcon s
tit
uen
ts
were
add
ed
to th
e crucible w
ith
aca
reful
s
prinkling
of powder
ed
flux
to
inhib
it
burning.
Wh
entheentire ch
arge
wasina
ndthoroughl
y
molt
en,
the
all
oy
was
st
irr
edca
refully witha graphi
te
rodseveraltim
es
at
int
e
rval
s ofafew
minut
es.
Qui
et
sta
nding
for
5
to
I
5
min
. was
th
ena
ll
owed,
a
nd
fi
nally
the
crucible was rem
oved
from
th
efurnace,
afte
rw
hi
ch
th
echar
ge
froze
and
was
th
encr
ac
kedoutof thecrucible,and
the
frozen
flu
xwashed from
the
metal.
Thi
s s
impl
etec
hniqu
e
avo
ided po
uring
of
th
emetaland
th
econsequent
diff1
culties
du
eto very sma
ll
bat
ch
es
a
nddange
rofco
nt
amin
a.t
ion.
The
ftnisheda
ll
oys
we
re
th
encut
int
os
ampl
esforanal
ys
is
and
co
rr
osion,
as
will be
dis
cussedla
ter.
It
ha
sbeens
tat
ed
in
th
elite
rat
ur
e
that
suchs
ub
sta
ncesas:MgO,
iV
f "
g
;~N2,
m
ag
nes
ium
oxyc
hloride orchlorineare a
ppre
ci
ab
lef
ac
tor
s
in
th
eco
rr
osionof magnes
ium
a
nd
it
sa
ll
oys.
In
ord
er
to ch
ec
k
th
eprese
nt
expe
rim
e
nt
alprocedure,andbecause ofthe poss
ibilit
y of the occ
urr
enceof these com po
un
dsinthe
product
ionorfabric
at
ionof magnes
ium
,
it
wa
sconsi
dered
advi
sa
bl
etoinvesti
gate
th
e
behav
iorofsuchsubs
ta
nces.
rt
wasfound,
pr
ovid
in
g
harmful
metallic
impuriti
eswerenotsimult
aneo
usly
intr
o
du
ced,
that
th
efollowing mate
ri
alsh
ave
nosig
ni
ft
ca
nt
e
ff
ect
ontheco
rr
osionofhigh
purit
y
magn
es
ium
and itsa
ll
oys:
CaC
2,
Nl-r.CI,
N
I f4
HF
.,
S,
iV
Ig
,.
N,,
MgO
,
MgOC
I,,
C,
li
e,
N,,
CS,,
C2ll,,
CO
,
C0
2,
II
2,
II
2
S,
li
Cl, Cl
2,
C
l-1
.,,SO,,
02,
natur
al
ga
s
an
dair.
It
wasalsofound
th
at
flu
x
in
cl
usions d
id
not
acce
leratethe co
rr
osionrate of supe
rpur
e a
ll
oys
in
3
per
ce
nt
NaC
lsol
ution.
The
pro
cess
and
equipm
entformaking
th
ep
ur
e a
ll
oys
h
av
in
gn
ow
beenbrieny outlined, some
further
consi
derat
ion
will
be
given
to
the
s
el
ect
ionand prepa
ration
ofthea
ll
oy
ingmate
ri
alsu
se
d.

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