KNITTING VIEWS/ NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2011/
machine, the fabric is a tubular. It is usuallyslit open when used.Normally, circular knitting also adopts thesame knitting principles as the flat bedmachines. The circular machine starts toknit when the CAM systems on theneedle beds (cylinder and dial) movealong the surface quite similar to that of the carriage on a flat bed machine. Theonly difference is that the operation iscontinuous as CAM system of the circularmachine does not need to stop duringknitting because there is no beginningor end of a course.
Circular knitting CAM systems onlyallow for unidirectional knitting. CAMsystems generate both the needle andthe sinker moment for single jerseymachines and cylinder and dial momentfor double jersey machines. The givendiagram shows both the sinker CAMtrack above and the needle CAM track.The needle track shows the typical threestage needle displacement of (1&4) theraising or clearing CAM, (2&3) thelowering or stitch CAM and (5&6) theguard CAM that returns the needle toits entry position for the next CAMsystem. The sinker track shows theengaged position (section 7) when theneedle is clearing. The sinkerdisengages in sections 8 and 9 so thatknock-over can take place and re-engages into section 7. The momentdiagrams of the needles and sinkers arealso shown in between CAMs.
Multi system circular machine
Similar to a flatbed machine, multi-systemcircular knitting is also possible. Fig 12.4is a schematic diagram of a circularknitting machine having eight systems.As shown in figure, it is clear that everyCAM system is knitting at the same timeand each of CAM system is having itsown supply of yarn for its own course.So, when the machine runs, all eightsystems move together and hence eightcourses of fabric are in knitting at the sametime. In other words, at the end of onerevolution of the CAM system, eightcourses of fabric are completed. Similarly,if there is more CAM systems around themachine, there will be more fabric coursesbeing produced in a single revolution of the machine, for example, say if there are30 CAM systems, 30 courses of fabricwill be completed in one revolution of theCAM system.As compared to a flatbed machine with acircular machine, the CAM systems of acircular machine always operate at theirmaximum speed. Also, circular machinesalways have much more CAM systemsthan flat bed machines. A double systemmachine with 100-inch needle bedproduces about 45 courses per minute anda 30-inch, 90-feed circular machineproduces about 2,700 courses per minute.Further, in circular knitting machine, needleaction is a result of the relative motionbetween the CAM plates and the needlebutt. The same needle action will beachieved whether the CAM plate ismoving across the needle butt or theneedle butt is moving across the CAMplate. So basically, there are two types of circular machines distinguished by therotation of the machine.I. CAM box revolving machineII. Cylinder revolving machineIf the CAM plates are moving across theneedle butts, the needle bed or the cylinderwill be stationary keeping the needle buttsin place while the CAM box carries theCAM plates, yarn feeders with their yarnpackages are all rotating around themachine. This type of machine is calledCAM box revolving machine.On the other hand, if the needle butts aremoving across the CAM plates, the CAM
Fig 12.3: CAM system
It may be noted that the number of systems around the machine is limitedby the circumference of the needlecylinder. Usually all the space on thecircumference is issued up for placingCAM systems. The actual number of CAM systems depends on the cylinderdiametre and the dimensions (width) of the CAM boxes. For example, a 30-inchdiametre machine may have 72 to 90CAM systems. Since each CAM systemmust have its own yarn supply and hencea yarn feeder, such machine can bereferred as 30-inch, 90-Feed machine.From above figure, further, it can be seenthat whether there are eight systems or80 systems, the space taken up by themachine will not be changed.
Fig 12.4: Multi system circular machine
Packagefor camsystem 1Cam Box 1Cylinder