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Burin Gumjudpai- Slow-roll, acceleration, the Big Rip and WKB approximation in NLS-type formulation of scalar field cosmology

Burin Gumjudpai- Slow-roll, acceleration, the Big Rip and WKB approximation in NLS-type formulation of scalar field cosmology

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Slow-roll, acceleration, the Big Rip and WKB approximation in NLS-type formulationof scalar field cosmology
Burin Gumjudpai
1,2
1
Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of CambridgeCentre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, United Kingdom 
Fundamental Physics & Cosmology Research Unit, The Tah Poe Academia Institute (TPTP)Department of Physics, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Siam 
(Dated: September 26, 2008)Aspects of non-linear Schr¨odinger-type (NLS) formulation of scalar (phantom) field cosmologyon slow-roll, acceleration, WKB approximation and Big Rip singularity are presented. Slow-rollparameters for the curvature and barotropic density terms are introduced. We reexpress all slow-roll parameters, slow-roll conditions and acceleration condition in NLS form. WKB approximationin the NLS formulation is also discussed when simplifying to linear case. Most of the Schr¨odingerpotentials in NLS formulation are very slowly-varying, hence WKB approximation is valid in theranges. In the NLS form of Big Rip singularity, two quantities are infinity in stead of three. Wealso found that approaching the Big Rip,
w
eff 
1 + 2
/
3
q
, (
q <
0) which is the same as effectivephantom equation of state in the flat case.
PACS numbers: 98.80.Cq
I. INTRODUCTION
Cosmology with scalar field is one of today researchmainstreams. Although the scalar field has not yet beenobserved, it is motivated from many ideas in high en-ergy physics and quantum gravities. Near future TeVscale experiments at LHC and Tevatron might discoverits existence. It has been widely accepted in theoreticalframeworks especially in model building of contemporarycosmology that the field sources acceleration expansionat early time, i.e. inflation, in order to solve horizonand flatness problems[1] and it also plays similar role inexplaining present acceleration observed and confirmedfrom cosmic microwave background [2], large scale struc-ture surveys[3] and supernovae type Ia[4,5,6]. In the late acceleration, it plays the role of dark energy (see Ref.[7] for reviews). Both inflation and acceleration are con-vinced by recent combined results[8] with possibility thatthe scalar field could be phantom, i.e. having equationof state coefficient
w
φ
<
1. The phantom equation of state is attained from negative kinetic energy term in itsLagrangiandensity[9,10]. Using BBN constraint of limit of expansion rate[11,12] with most recent WMAP five- year result[13],
w
φ,
0
=
1
.
09
±
0
.
12 at 68% CL. WhileWMAP five-year result combined with Baryon AcousticOscillation of large scale structure survey (from SDSSand 2dFGRS)[14] and type Ia supernovae data (fromHST[5], SNLS[6] and ESSENCE [15]) assuming dynam- ical
w
with flat universe yields
1
.
38
< w
φ,
0
<
0
.
86 at95% CL and
w
φ,
0
=
1
.
12
±
0
.
13 at 68% CL. Althoughthe phantom field has its room from observation, in flatuniverse the idea suffers from unwanted Big Rip singular-
Electronic address:B.Gumjudpai@damtp.cam.ac.uk
Electronic address:buring@nu.ac.th
ity[16,17]. However there have been many attempts to resolve the singularity from both phenomenological andfundamental inspirations [18].Inflationary models in presence of other field behav-ing barotropic-like apart from having only single scalarfield were considered such as in[19] where the scale in-variant spectrum in the cosmic microwave backgroundwas claimed to be generated not only from fluctuationof scalar field alone but rather from both scalar fieldand interaction between gravity to other gauge fieldssuch as Dirac and gauge vector fields. This is similarto the situation in the late universe in which the accel-eration happens in presence of both dark matter fluidand scalar fluid (as dark energy). Proposal of mathe-matical alternatives to the standard Friedmann canoni-cal scalar field cosmology with barotropic perfect fluid,was raised, such as non-linear Ermakov-Pinney equation[20,21]. There are also other applications of Ermakov- Pinney equation, for example in[22], a link from stan-dard cosmology with
k >
0 in Ermakov system toBose-Einstein condensates was shown. Another exam-ple is a connection from generalized Ermakov-Pinneyequation with perturbative scheme to generalized WKBmethod of comparisonequation[23]. Recently a link fromstandard canonical scalar field cosmology in Friedmann-Lemaˆıtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background withbarotropic fluid to quantum mechanics is established. Itwas realized from the fact that solutions of generalizedErmakov-Pinney equation are correspondent to solutionsof the non-linear Schr¨odinger-type equation, hereafterNLS equation[21,24]. Connection from the NLS-type formulation to Friedmann scalar field cosmology formu-lation is concluded in Ref. [25] where standard cosmolog-ical quantities are reinterpreted in the language of quan-tum mechanics assuming power-law expansion,
a
t
q
and the phantom field case is included. The quanti-ties in the new form satisfies a non-linear Schr¨odinger-
 
2type equation. In most circumstance, the scalar fieldexact solution
φ
(
t
) can be solved analytically only whenassuming flat geometry (
k
= 0) and scalar field fluiddomination. When
k
= 0 with more than one fluidcomponent, the system is not always possible to solveanalytically in standard Friedmann formulation. Trans-forming standard Friedmann cosmological quantities intoNLS forms could help solving for the solution [26,27]. In the NLS formulation, the independent variable
t
instandard formulation is re-scaled to variable
x
. However,pre-knowledge of scale factor as function of time,
a
(
t
),must be presumed in order to express NLS quantities. Itis interesting to see the other features of field velocity,˙
φ
, e.g. acceleration condition, slow-roll approximation,written in NLS formulation. Mathematical tools such asWKB approximation in quantum mechanics might alsobe interesting for application in standard scalar field cos-mology. It is worthwhile to investigate this possibility. Itis worth noting that Schr¨odinger-type equation in scalarfield cosmology was previously considered in differentprocedure to study inflation and phantom field problems[28].We introduce the NLS formulation in Sec.II. Theslow-roll conditions in both formulations are discussedin Sec.IIIwhere we define slow-roll parameters forbarotropic fluid and curvature terms. Then in Sec.IVwe show acceleration conditions in NLS form. The WKBapproximation is performed in Sec.V. The NLS form of Big Rip singularity is in Sec.VIand finally conclusion ismade in Sec.VII.
II. SCALAR FIELD COSMOLOGY IN NLSFORMULATION
Two perfect fluids are considered in FLRW universe:barotropic fluid and scalar field. The barotropic equationof state is
p
γ
=
w
γ
ρ
γ
with
w
γ
expressed as
n
where
n
= 3(1+
w
γ
). The scalar field pressure obeys
 p
φ
=
w
φ
ρ
φ
.Total density and pressure of the mixture are sum of the two components. Evolution of barotropic density isgoverned by conservation equation
,
˙
ρ
γ
=
nHρ
γ
withsolution,
ρ
γ
=
D/a
n
,
where
a
is scale factor, the dotdenotes time derivative,
D
0 is a proportionalconstant.Using scalar field Lagrangian density,
L
= (1
/
2)
ǫ
˙
φ
2
(
φ
), i.e. minimally coupling to gravity,
ρ
φ
=12
ǫ
˙
φ
2
+
(
φ
)
, p
φ
=12
ǫ
˙
φ
2
(
φ
)
.
(1)The branch
ǫ
= 1 is for non-phantom case and
ǫ
=
1 isfor phantom case[17]. Note that the phantom behavior(
ρ
φ
<
 p
φ
) can also be obtained in non-minimal couplingto gravity case[29]. Dynamics of the field is controlledby conservation equation
ǫ
¨
φ
+ 3
˙
φ
=
d
d
φ.
(2)The spatial expansion of the universe sources friction todynamics of the field in Eq. (2) via the Hubble parameter
. The Hubble parameter is governed by Friedmannequation,
2
=
κ
2
3
ρ
tot
ka
2
,
(3)where here
ρ
tot
= (1
/
2)
ǫ
˙
φ
2
+
+
D/a
n
and by accelera-tion equation,¨
aa
=
κ
2
6(
ρ
tot
+ 3
 p
tot
)
,
(4)which does not depend on
k
. This gives accelerationcondition
 p
tot
<
ρ
tot
3
.
(5)Here
p
tot
=
w
eff 
ρ
tot
,κ
2
8
πG
= 1
/M 
2P
,
G
is Newton’sgravitational constant,
P
is reduced Planck mass,
k
isspatial curvature and
w
eff 
= (
ρ
φ
w
φ
+
ρ
γ
w
γ
)
tot
. Usingthese facts, it is straightforward to show that
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
=
2
κ
2
˙
ka
2
nD
3
a
n
,
(6)
(
φ
) =3
κ
2
2
+˙
3+2
k
3
a
2
+
n
66
Da
n
.
(7)The Friedmann formulation of scalar field cosmologyabove can be transformed to the NLS formulation as onedefines NLS quantities [24],
u
(
x
)
a
(
t
)
n/
2
,
(8)
κ
2
n
2
12
D,
(9)
(
x
)
κ
2
n
4
a
(
t
)
n
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
.
(10)In the NLS formulation, there is no such analogous equa-tions to Friedmann equation or fluid equation since bothof them are written together in form of a non-linearSchr¨odinger-type equation
1
,
u
′′
(
x
) + [
(
x
)]
u
(
x
) =
nk
2
u
(
x
)
(4
n
)
/n
,
(11)where
denotes d
/
d
x
. Independent variable
t
is scaledto NLS independent variable
x
as
x
=
σ
(
t
)
,
such that˙
x
(
t
) =
u
(
x
)
,
(12)
φ
(
t
) =
ψ
(
x
)
.
(13)Using Eq. (10) and
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
=
ǫ
˙
x
2
ψ
(
x
)
2
, we get [25]
ǫψ
(
x
)
2
=4
κ
2
n
(
x
)
,
(14)
1
NLS equation considerd here is only
x
-dependent hence it is notpartial differential equation with localized soliton-like solution asin[30]
 
3hence
ψ
(
x
) =
±
2
κ
n
  
(
x
)
ǫ
d
x .
(15)Inverse function
ψ
1
(
x
) exists for
(
x
)
= 0 and
n
= 0.In this circumstance,
x
(
t
) =
ψ
1
φ
(
t
) and the scalarfield potential,
σ
1
(
x
) and
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
can be expressedin NLS formulation as
ǫ
˙
φ
(
x
)
2
=4
κ
2
nuu
′′
+2
kκ
2
u
4
/n
+4
κ
2
nu
2
=4
κ
2
nu
2
,
(16)
(
x
) =12
κ
2
n
2
(
u
)
2
2
κ
2
nu
2
+12
κ
2
n
2
u
2
+3
kκ
2
u
4
/n
.
(17)From Eqs. (16) and (17), we can find
ρ
φ
=12
κ
2
n
2
(
u
)
2
+12
κ
2
n
2
u
2
+3
kκ
2
u
4
/n
,
(18)
 p
φ
=
12
κ
2
n
2
(
u
)
2
+4
κ
2
nu
2
12
κ
2
n
2
u
2
3
kκ
2
u
4
/n
.
(19)We know that
ρ
γ
=
Du
2
=
12
Eu
2
/
(
κ
2
n
2
) from Eq.(9) and the barotropic pressure is
p
γ
= [(
n
3)
/
3]
ρ
γ
,therefore
ρ
tot
=12
κ
2
n
2
(
u
)
2
+3
kκ
2
u
4
/n
,
(20)
 p
tot
=
12
κ
2
n
2
(
u
)
2
+4
u
2
κ
2
n
[
]
3
kκ
2
u
4
/n
.
(21)Using the Schr¨odinger-type equation (11), then
 p
tot
=
12
κ
2
n
2
(
u
)
2
+4
κ
2
nuu
′′
kκ
2
u
4
/n
.
(22)
III. SLOW-ROLL CONDITIONSA. Slow-roll conditions: flat geometry and scalarfield domination
In flat universe with scalar field domination (
k
=0
,ρ
γ
= 0), the Friedmann equation
2
=
κ
2
ρ
φ
/
3
,
to-gether with the Eq. (2) yield˙
=
κ
2
˙
φ
2
ǫ/
2. For
ǫ
=
1, we get˙
H >
0 and0
< aH 
2
<
¨
a,
(23)i.e. the acceleration is greater than speed of expansionper Hubble radius, ˙
a/cH 
1
. On the other hand, for
ǫ
=1, we get˙
H <
0 and0
<
¨
a < aH 
2
.
(24)Slow-roll condition in [31,32] assumes negligible kinetic term hence
|
ǫ
˙
φ
2
/
2
| ≪
(
φ
), therefore
ρ
φ
(
φ
) hence
2
κ
2
V/
3. With this approximation,
2
=
˙
3+
κ
2
3
V ,
2
˙
3+
2
.
(25)This results in an approximation
|
˙
| ≪
2
from whichthe slow-roll parameter,
ε
˙
2
(26)is defined. Then the condition
|
ǫ
˙
φ
2
/
2
|
(
φ
) is equiv-alent to
|
ε
|
1, i.e.
1
ε <
0 for phantom fieldcase and 0
< ε
1 for non-phantom field case. For thenon-phantom field, this condition is necessary for infla-tion to happen (though not sufficient)[32] but for thephantom field case, the slow-roll condition is not neededbecause the negative kinetic term results in accelerationwith
w
φ
1. The other slow-roll parameter is definedby balancing magnitude of the field friction and acceler-ation terms in Eq. (2). This is independent of 
k
or
ρ
γ
.When friction dominates
|
¨
φ
||
3
˙
φ
|
, then
η
¨
φ
˙
φ
(27)is defined [32]. The condition is then
|
η
|
1 and thefluid equation is approximated to˙
φ
≃ −
φ
/
3
ǫH 
whichallows the field to roll up the hill when
ǫ
=
1. Usingboth conditions, e.g.
|
ǫ
˙
φ
2
/
2
|
and
|
¨
φ
| |
3
˙
φ
|
together, one can derive
ε
= (1
/
2
κ
2
ǫ
)(
φ
/V 
)
2
and
η
=(1
2
)(
φφ
/V 
) as well-known.
B. Slow-roll conditions: non-flat geometry andnon-negligible barotropic density
1. Friedmann formulatio
When considering the case of 
k
= 0 and
ρ
γ
= 0, then˙
=
κ
2
2˙
φ
2
ǫ
+
ka
2
2
6
Da
n
.
(28)We can then write slow-roll condition as:
|
κ
2
ǫ
˙
φ
2
/
6
|
(
κ
2
V/
3)
(
k/a
2
)+(
κ
2
D/
3
a
n
) and hence
2
(
κ
2
V/
3)+(
κ
2
D/
3
a
n
)
(
k/a
2
). Using this approximation and Eq.(28) in (3),
2
˙
3+
k
3
a
2
2
18
Da
n
+
2
,
(29)which implies
|
(˙
H/
3)+(
k/
3
a
2
)
(
2
D/
18
a
n
)
|
2
.We can reexpress this slow-roll condition as
|
ε
+
ε
k
+
ε
D
|
1
,
(30)where
ε
k
k/a
2
2
and
ε
D
2
D/
6
a
n
2
. Anotherslow-roll parameter
η
is defined as
η
≡ −
¨
φ/H 
˙
φ
, i.e. thesame as the flat scalar field dominated case since thecondition
|
¨
φ
| ≪ |
3
˙
φ
|
is derived from fluid equation of the field which is independent of 
k
and
ρ
γ
.

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