2type equation. In most circumstance, the scalar ﬁeldexact solution
φ
(
t
) can be solved analytically only whenassuming ﬂat geometry (
k
= 0) and scalar ﬁeld ﬂuiddomination. When
k
= 0 with more than one ﬂuidcomponent, the system is not always possible to solveanalytically in standard Friedmann formulation. Trans-forming standard Friedmann cosmological quantities intoNLS forms could help solving for the solution [26,27].
In the NLS formulation, the independent variable
t
instandard formulation is re-scaled to variable
x
. However,pre-knowledge of scale factor as function of time,
a
(
t
),must be presumed in order to express NLS quantities. Itis interesting to see the other features of ﬁeld velocity,˙
φ
, e.g. acceleration condition, slow-roll approximation,written in NLS formulation. Mathematical tools such asWKB approximation in quantum mechanics might alsobe interesting for application in standard scalar ﬁeld cos-mology. It is worthwhile to investigate this possibility. Itis worth noting that Schr¨odinger-type equation in scalarﬁeld cosmology was previously considered in diﬀerentprocedure to study inﬂation and phantom ﬁeld problems[28].We introduce the NLS formulation in Sec.II. Theslow-roll conditions in both formulations are discussedin Sec.IIIwhere we deﬁne slow-roll parameters forbarotropic ﬂuid and curvature terms. Then in Sec.IVwe show acceleration conditions in NLS form. The WKBapproximation is performed in Sec.V. The NLS form of Big Rip singularity is in Sec.VIand ﬁnally conclusion ismade in Sec.VII.
II. SCALAR FIELD COSMOLOGY IN NLSFORMULATION
Two perfect ﬂuids are considered in FLRW universe:barotropic ﬂuid and scalar ﬁeld. The barotropic equationof state is
p
γ
=
w
γ
ρ
γ
with
w
γ
expressed as
n
where
n
= 3(1+
w
γ
). The scalar ﬁeld pressure obeys
p
φ
=
w
φ
ρ
φ
.Total density and pressure of the mixture are sum of the two components. Evolution of barotropic density isgoverned by conservation equation
,
˙
ρ
γ
=
−
nHρ
γ
withsolution,
ρ
γ
=
D/a
n
,
where
a
is scale factor, the dotdenotes time derivative,
D
≥
0 is a proportionalconstant.Using scalar ﬁeld Lagrangian density,
L
= (1
/
2)
ǫ
˙
φ
2
−
V
(
φ
), i.e. minimally coupling to gravity,
ρ
φ
=12
ǫ
˙
φ
2
+
V
(
φ
)
, p
φ
=12
ǫ
˙
φ
2
−
V
(
φ
)
.
(1)The branch
ǫ
= 1 is for non-phantom case and
ǫ
=
−
1 isfor phantom case[17]. Note that the phantom behavior(
ρ
φ
<
−
p
φ
) can also be obtained in non-minimal couplingto gravity case[29]. Dynamics of the ﬁeld is controlledby conservation equation
ǫ
¨
φ
+ 3
H
˙
φ
=
−
d
V
d
φ.
(2)The spatial expansion of the universe sources friction todynamics of the ﬁeld in Eq. (2) via the Hubble parameter
H
. The Hubble parameter is governed by Friedmannequation,
H
2
=
κ
2
3
ρ
tot
−
ka
2
,
(3)where here
ρ
tot
= (1
/
2)
ǫ
˙
φ
2
+
V
+
D/a
n
and by accelera-tion equation,¨
aa
=
−
κ
2
6(
ρ
tot
+ 3
p
tot
)
,
(4)which does not depend on
k
. This gives accelerationcondition
p
tot
<
−
ρ
tot
3
.
(5)Here
p
tot
=
w
eﬀ
ρ
tot
,κ
2
≡
8
πG
= 1
/M
2P
,
G
is Newton’sgravitational constant,
M
P
is reduced Planck mass,
k
isspatial curvature and
w
eﬀ
= (
ρ
φ
w
φ
+
ρ
γ
w
γ
)
/ρ
tot
. Usingthese facts, it is straightforward to show that
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
=
−
2
κ
2
˙
H
−
ka
2
−
nD
3
a
n
,
(6)
V
(
φ
) =3
κ
2
H
2
+˙
H
3+2
k
3
a
2
+
n
−
66
Da
n
.
(7)The Friedmann formulation of scalar ﬁeld cosmologyabove can be transformed to the NLS formulation as onedeﬁnes NLS quantities [24],
u
(
x
)
≡
a
(
t
)
−
n/
2
,
(8)
E
≡ −
κ
2
n
2
12
D,
(9)
P
(
x
)
≡
κ
2
n
4
a
(
t
)
n
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
.
(10)In the NLS formulation, there is no such analogous equa-tions to Friedmann equation or ﬂuid equation since bothof them are written together in form of a non-linearSchr¨odinger-type equation
1
,
u
′′
(
x
) + [
E
−
P
(
x
)]
u
(
x
) =
−
nk
2
u
(
x
)
(4
−
n
)
/n
,
(11)where
′
denotes d
/
d
x
. Independent variable
t
is scaledto NLS independent variable
x
as
x
=
σ
(
t
)
,
such that˙
x
(
t
) =
u
(
x
)
,
(12)
φ
(
t
) =
ψ
(
x
)
.
ǫ
˙
φ
(
t
)
2
=
ǫ
˙
x
2
ψ
′
(
x
)
2
ǫψ
′
(
x
)
2
=4
κ
2
nP
(
x
)
,
(14)
1
NLS equation considerd here is only
x
-dependent hence it is notpartial diﬀerential equation with localized soliton-like solution asin[30]