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Massimo Giovannini- Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

Massimo Giovannini- Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

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CERN-PH-TH/2004-132
Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?
Massimo Giovannini
1
Centro “Enrico Fermi”, Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome, Italy Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
Abstract
We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of thespace-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative)barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip isapproached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similaranalysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that thespatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.
1
Electronic address: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch
 
Consider the situation where the matter content of the present Universe is dominated bya perfect fluid with barotropic index
w
=
p/ρ <
1. Evidence of this possibility seems tobe suggested from the analysis of Type Ia supernovae. If this is the case future singularitiesmay be expected [1, 2] (see also Refs. [3, 4, 5]).In the present paper we intend to study the nature of future big rip singularities in afully inhomogeneous approach whose relevance in the context of usual big-bang singularitieshas been exploited long ago [6] (see also [7, 8] and references therein). For instance, in thecase of conventional big-bang singularities one can show that the relative contribution of thegradients decays as the singularity is approached. Does the same happens in the case of future (big-rip) singularities? In the case of big-bang singularity the anisotropy is believedto play an important rˆole in the way the singularity is effectively approached. is this truealso for big-rips? These are some of the questions we ought to address.Consider first the case where the perfect barotropic fluid filling the Universe is charac-terized by a supernegative equation of state, i.e.
w
=
1
ǫ
, with
ǫ >
0. We shall thenbe interested in the contribution of the spatial gradients as the the big rip is approached.To achieve this goal Einstein equations must be written in fully inhomogeneous terms. Bywriting the line element as
2
ds
2
=
dt
2
γ 
ij
(
x,t
)
dx
i
dx
 j
,
(1)the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints take the form
3
2
Tr
2
+
r
= 16
πG
[(
 p
+
ρ
)
u
0
u
0
 p
]
,
(2)
i
k
ki
= 8
πG
(
 p
+
ρ
)
u
0
u
i
,
(3)where
 ji
=
12
γ 
 jk
∂ ∂tγ 
ki
,
=
ii
,
Tr
2
=
 ji
i j
,
(4)and where
r
=
r
ii
is the trace of the spatial (instrinsic) curvature computed from the threedimensional Ricci tensor in terms of 
γ 
ij
. The (
ij
) components of Einstein equations are,instead,1
γ ∂ ∂t
γK 
 ji
r
 ji
= 4
πG
[
2(
 p
+
ρ
)
u
i
u
 j
+ (
 p
ρ
)
δ
 ji
]
.
(5)where
γ 
= det(
γ 
ij
).Consider then the following expansion of the spatial metric, i.e.
γ 
ij
(
x,t
) =
a
2
(
t
)[
α
ij
(
x
) +
β 
ij
(
x,t
)]
,
(6)when the term
β 
ij
(
x,t
) contains the contribution of the gradients while
α
ij
(
x
) does not con-tain any gradient. Recalling that the inverse metric, to this order in the gradient expansion,
2
Note that, in this approach,
γ 
ij
(
x,t
) contains 6 independent degrees of freedom corresponding to thecorrect number of initial conditions required for a general discussion of the problem.
3
In the following the overdot will denote a partial derivation with respect to the cosmic time coordinate.
1
 
is given by
γ 
ij
= [
α
ij
β 
ij
]
/a
2
(
t
), the extrinsic curvature (and its traces) can be readilycomputed. For instance, from Eqs. (4) and (6)
 ji
=
(
Hδ
 ji
+˙
β 
 ji
2)
,
(7)where
= ˙
a/a
. Since from the momentum constraint (3) the velocity field is always of higher order in the gradient expansion, i.e.
u
0
u
i
=
∂ 
k
˙
β 
ki
∂ 
i
˙
β 
16
πG
(
 p
+
ρ
)
,
(8)the contribution of the peculiar velocity field can be neglected in the remaining equations.This is not true necessarily to higher order in the gradient expansion.Thus, recalling that
u
0
u
0
= 1 +
α
ij
u
i
u
 j
/a
2
(
t
), and using Eqs. (4)–(7), Eqs. (2) and (5)can be written, respectively, as6
2
+ 2
˙
β 
+
a
2
= 16
πGρ,
(9)2(˙
+ 3
2
)
δ
 ji
+¨
β 
 ji
+ 3
˙
β 
 ji
+
˙
βδ
 ji
+2
a
2
 ji
= 8
πG
(
ρ
 p
)
δ
 ji
,
(10)where we defined
r
 ji
=
 ji
/a
2
(in this notation
 ji
and its traces are time-independent).Clearly the trace-free part of Eq. (10) reduces to
¨
β 
 ji
13¨
βδ
 ji
+ 3
˙
β 
 ji
13˙
βδ
 ji
=
2
a
2
 ji
13
δ
 ji
.
(11)Equation (10) allows to determine the gradient contribution to the energy density and thefollowing relation3(2˙
+ 3
2
) +¨
β 
+ 3
˙
β 
+
2
a
2
=
24
πGp,
(12)allows to determine the gradient contribution to the pressure density.Even if not strictly necessary we can imagine to split
ρ
and
p
as
ρ
=
ρ
+ ˜
ρ, p
=
p
+ ˜
 p,
(13)where, from Eqs. (10)
ρ
and
p
obey the usual Friedmann equations
2
=8
πG
3
ρ,
(14)(2˙
+ 3
2
) =
8
πGp,
(15)˙
ρ
+ 3
(
ρ
+
p
) = 0
.
(16)Eq. (16) comes from the (0) component of the covariant conservation equation, i.e.1
γ ∂ ∂t
{
γ 
[(
 p
+
ρ
)
u
0
u
0
 p
]
}
1
γ ∂ 
i
[
γ 
(
 p
+
ρ
)
u
0
u
i
]
k
[(
 p
+
ρ
)
u
k
u
+
k
= 0
.
(17)2

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