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AP Psychology Chapter 1 Power Point Notes

AP Psychology Chapter 1 Power Point Notes

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Cornell Notes Topic AP Psychology Chapter 1 PowerPoint Notes
EssentialQuestion:
Main Concepts Notes/DetailsPsychologists
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Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method toconstruct theories that organize observations and implytestable hypotheses.
Hindsight Bias
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We tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we wouldhave foreseen it.
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The “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon
Overconfidence
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We tend to think we know more than we do.
Critical Thinking
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Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments andconclusions.
o
Examines assumptions
o
Discerns hidden values
o
Evaluates evidence
Theory
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An explanation using an integrated set of principles thatorganizes and predicts observations.
Hypothesis
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A testable prediction
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Often implied by a theory
OperationalDefinition
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A statement of procedures (operations) used to defineresearch variables
o
Intelligence may be operationally defines as what anintelligence test measures
Replication
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Repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants andcircumstances.
o
Usually with different participants in different situations.Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, andnaturalistic observation.
Case Study
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Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth inthe hope of revealing things true of us all.
Survey
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Technique of ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of  behaviors of people.
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Usually by questioning a representative, random sample of  people.
Random Sample
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A sample that fairly represents a population because eachmember has an equal chance of inclusion.
False ConsensusEffect
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Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others shareour beliefs and behaviors.
1
 
Population
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All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawnfor a study.
NaturalisticObservation
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Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurringsituations without trying to manipulate and control thesituation.
CorrelationCoefficient
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A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors varytogether, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.
Scatterplot
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A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents thevalues of two variables.
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The slope of the points suggests the direction of therelationship.
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The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the strength of the correlation
o
Little scatter indicates high correlation
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Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.
Illusory Correlation
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The perception of a relationship where none exists.
Experiment
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An investigator manipulates one of more factors(independent variable) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable)
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By random assignment of participants the experimentcontrols other relevant factors.
Placebo
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An inert substance of condition that may be administeredinstead of a presumed action agent, such as a drug, to see if ittriggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent.
Double- BlindProcedure
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Both the research participants and the research staff areignorant (blind) about whether the research participants havereceived the treatment of a placebo.
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Commonly used in drug-evaluation on studies.
ExperimentalCondition
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The condition of an experiment that exposes participants tothe treatment, that is, to one version of the independentvariable.
Control Condition
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The condition of an experimental that contrasts with theexperimental treatment.
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Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of thetreatment.
Random Assignment
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Assigning participants to experimental and controlconditions by chance.
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Minimizes pre-existing differences between those assignedto the different groups.
Independent Variable
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The experimental factor that is manipulated.
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The variable whose effect is being studies.
Dependent Variable
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The experimental factor that may change in response tomanipulations of the independent variable.
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