MODERN SCIENCE AND VEDIC SCIENCE
This article is divided into two parts. Part I is a general introduction to unified quantumfield theories, which provides a conceptual foundation for the analysis in Part II. Althoughwritten for the nonspecialist, it is our hope that this presentation of fundamental principleswill be of sufficient depth and clarity to be of interest to the specialist as well. The specialistmay however, if he chooses, proceed directly to Part II, as both Part I and Part II are intended to be self-contained.
PART I:AN INTRODUCTION TO UNIFIED QUANTUM FIELD THEORIES
t was Einstein's deep conviction that the laws of nature had a simple, geometric, unified foundation and that this unification could be understood by the human intellect. In an at tempt to construct such a unified theory, he devoted the later part of his life to extending his geometric theory of gravity, known as general relativity, to include the electromag netic force. Unfortunately, the theoretical tools and understanding needed to achieve such a unification were not yet available, and his quest for a unified field theory remained largelyunfulfilled.Within the past decade, there have been a number of significant breakthroughs that haveled to a revitalization of progress and hope in this fundamental research area. One of theseis the principle of spontaneously broken symmetry, which locates deeply hidden symmetries of nature at fundamental space-time scales and explains the emergence of diverse forces from an initially unified field. A second breakthrough has been the discovery of a profound symmetry principle called supersymmetry, which is capable of unifying force fields and mat ter fields in the context of a single field. A third is the discovery of superstring theories. Here we present an introduction to the conceptual foundations of unified field theories.This analysis includes a discussion of quantum field theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism, electro-weak unification and grand unification, supersymmetry, supergravity and superstring theories. In our presentation, we have strived to maintain some of the quantum-mechanical and field theoretic aspects of these subjects that are usually omitted in an introductory treatment. We also provide an up-to-date appraisal of the experimental and theoretical status of these theories.
1.1 Quantum Field Theory
The quantized theory of fields, in both its particle and string formulations, is the mostsophisticated and successful framework to emerge within the field of physics. It providesa natural extension of quantum mechanics from the nonrelativistic domain of atomic andmolecular systems to the relativistic domain of nuclear and elementary particle physics.Quantum field theory is fundamentally a theory of fields, which formally stands in relation to classical field theory as nonrelativistic quantum mechanics stands in relation to theclassical mechanics of a point particle. The application of quantum mechanics to fields hasimmediate and profound consequences. One such consequence is that the energy levels of the field become discrete or "quantized." Unlike a classical field, whose propagating wavescan have any amplitude and can thereby possess arbitrary energy, the stable propagatingstates of a quantum field are constrained to have discrete energies.