APPLICATION OF NUTRIGENOMICS IN LIVSTOCK AND POULTRY
Over the last decade, advances in the biochemical technologies available for examiningfunctional genomics have provided a number of new molecular tools for evaluating responses tonutritional strategies. These tools are largely based on an understanding of the expression andcontrol of specific genes and gene products and have lead to the development of the sciencesassociated with nutrigenomics (Swanson et al., 2003). Bioactive food compounds can interact withgenes affecting transcription factors, protein expression and metabolite production. The study of howgenes and gene products interact with dietary chemicals to alter phenotype and conversely, howgenes and their products metabolize nutrients is called
Nutritional genomics or “Nutrigenomics
”(Kaput et al., 2005).In t
he post genomic era, many new molecular tools for evaluating the factors influencing fertilityand reproductive performance in Livestock and Poultry came into focus. Currently, oligo-based andcDNA microarray techniques make it possible to understand many of the factors controlling theregulation of gene transcription and globally evaluate gene expression profiles by looking
at the relativeabundance of gene-specific mRNA in tissues. These techniques provide information onreproductive, developmental and
performance characteristics in livestock (
The Nutritional genomic area includes two parts:
1) Nutrigenomics that is the study of interaction between dietary components and thegenome, and the regulating changes in proteins and other metabolism.2) Nutrigenetics that identify the response to dietary components with regard to geneticdifferences. The new technologies like,
is a study of the functions and interactions of all genes in the genome.
measures the changes in the whole proteome, such as post-translationalmodifications.
is measures the changes in the entire metabolome, which is generally definedas metabolites with molecular weights less than 2000 Daltons, in a dose-dependent manner for a particular nutrient or drug.
are now making their ways to solve the intervening puzzle between nutrientand genes (Subbiah et al.,2007).
Nutrient gene interaction
Genes are turned on and off according to metabolic signals that the nucleus receives frominternal factors, e.g. hormones, and external factors, e.g. nutrients, which are among the most