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Table Of Contents

List of symbols and abbreviations
1.1Historical development
1.2The general system
1.3Advantages of optical fiber communication
2.2 Ray theory transmission
2.2.1Total internal reflection
2.2.2Acceptance angle
2.2.3Numerical aperture
2.2.4Skew rays
2.3 Electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation
2.3.1Electromagnetic waves
2.3.2Modes in a planar guide
2.3.3Phase and group velocity
2.3.4Phase shift with total internal reflection and the evanescent field
2.3.5Goos–Haenchen shift
2.4 Cylindrical fiber
2.4.2Mode coupling
2.4.3Step index fibers
2.4.4Graded index fibers
2.5 Single-mode fibers
3.3 Material absorption losses in silica glass fibers
3.3.1Intrinsic absorption
3.3.2Extrinsic absorption
3.4 Linear scattering losses
3.4.1Rayleigh scattering
3.4.2Mie scattering
3.5 Nonlinear scattering losses
3.5.1Stimulated Brillouin scattering
3.5.2Stimulated Raman scattering
3.6 Fiber bend loss
3.7 Mid-infrared and far-infrared transmission
3.8 Dispersion
3.9 Chromatic dispersion
3.9.1Material dispersion
3.9.2Waveguide dispersion
3.10 Intermodal dispersion
3.10.1Multimode step index fiber
3.10.2Multimode graded index fiber
3.10.3Modal noise
3.11 Overall fiber dispersion
3.11.1Multimode fibers
3.11.2Single-mode fibers
3.12 Dispersion-modified single-mode fibers
3.12.1Dispersion-shifted fibers
3.12.2Dispersion-flattened fibers
3.12.3Nonzero-dispersion-shifted fibers
3.13 Polarization
3.13.1Fiber birefringence
3.13.2Polarization mode dispersion
3.13.3Polarization-maintaining fibers
3.14 Nonlinear effects
3.14.1Scattering effects
3.14.2Kerr effects
3.15 Soliton propagation
4.2Preparation of optical fibers
4.3Liquid-phase (melting) techniques
4.3.1Fiber drawing
4.4Vapor-phase deposition techniques
4.4.1Outside vapor-phase oxidation process
4.4.2Vapor axial deposition (VAD)
4.4.3Modified chemical vapor deposition
4.4.4Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PCVD)
4.4.5Summary of vapor-phase deposition techniques
4.5Optical fibers
4.5.1Multimode step index fibers
4.5.2Multimode graded index fibers
4.5.3Single-mode fibers
4.5.4Plastic-clad fibers
4.5.5Plastic optical fibers
4.6Optical fiber cables
4.6.1Fiber strength and durability
4.7Stability of the fiber transmission characteristics
4.7.2Hydrogen absorption
4.7.3Nuclear radiation exposure
4.8Cable design
4.8.1Fiber buffering
4.8.2Cable structural and strength members
4.8.3Cable sheath, water barrier and cable core
4.8.4Examples of fiber cables
5.2Fiber alignment and joint loss
5.2.1Multimode fiber joints
5.2.2Single-mode fiber joints
5.3Fiber splices
5.3.1Fusion splices
5.3.2Mechanical splices
5.3.3Multiple splices
5.4Fiber connectors
5.4.1Cylindrical ferrule connectors
5.4.2Duplex and multiple-fiber connectors
5.4.3Fiber connector-type summary
5.5Expanded beam connectors
5.5.1GRIN-rod lenses
5.6Fiber couplers
5.6.1Three- and four-port couplers
5.6.2Star couplers
5.6.3Wavelength division multiplexing couplers
5.7Optical isolators and circulators
6.2Basic concepts
6.2.1Absorption and emission of radiation
6.2.2The Einstein relations
6.2.3Population inversion
6.2.4Optical feedback and laser oscillation
6.2.5Threshold condition for laser oscillation
6.3Optical emission from semiconductors
6.3.1The p–njunction
6.3.2Spontaneous emission
6.3.3Carrier recombination
6.3.4Stimulated emission and lasing
6.3.6Semiconductor materials
6.4The semiconductor injection laser
6.4.2Stripe geometry
6.4.3Laser modes
6.4.4Single-mode operation
6.5Some injection laser structures
6.5.1Gain-guided lasers
6.5.2Index-guided lasers
6.5.3Quantum-well lasers
6.5.4Quantum-dot lasers
6.6Single-frequency injection lasers
6.6.1Short- and coupled-cavity lasers
6.6.2Distributed feedback lasers
6.6.3Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers
6.7Injection laser characteristics
6.7.1Threshold current temperature dependence
6.7.2Dynamic response
6.7.3Frequency chirp
6.11Mid-infrared and far-infrared lasers
6.11.1Quantum cascade lasers
7.2 LED power and efficiency
7.2.1The double-heterojunction LED
7.3 LED structures
7.3.1Planar LED
7.3.2Dome LED
7.3.3Surface emitter LEDs
7.3.4Edge emitter LEDs
7.3.5Superluminescent LEDs
7.3.6Resonant cavity and quantum-dot LEDs
7.3.7Lens coupling to fiber
7.4 LED characteristics
7.4.1Optical output power
7.4.2Output spectrum
7.4.3Modulation bandwidth
7.5 Modulation
8.3 Optical detection principles
8.4 Absorption
8.4.1Absorption coefficient
8.4.2Direct and indirect absorption: silicon and germanium
8.4.3III–V alloys
8.5 Quantum efficiency
8.7 Long-wavelength cutoff
8.8 Semiconductor photodiodes without internal gain
8.8.1The p–nphotodiode
8.8.2The p–i–nphotodiode
8.8.3Speed of response and traveling-wave photodiodes
8.9 Semiconductor photodiodes with internal gain
8.9.1Avalanche photodiodes
8.9.2Silicon reach through avalanche photodiodes
8.9.3Germanium avalanche photodiodes
8.9.4III–V alloy avalanche photodiodes
8.9.5Benefits and drawbacks with the avalanche photodiode
8.9.6Multiplication factor
8.10 Mid-infrared and far-infrared photodiodes
8.10.1 Quantum-dot photodetectors
8.11 Phototransistors
8.12 Metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors
9.2.1Thermal noise
9.2.2Dark current noise
9.2.3Quantum noise
9.2.4Digital signaling quantum noise
9.2.5Analog transmission quantum noise
9.3 Receiver noise
9.3.1The p–nand p–i–nphotodiode receiver
9.3.2Receiver capacitance and bandwidth
9.3.3Avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver
9.3.4Excess avalanche noise factor
9.3.5Gain-bandwidth product
9.4 Receiver structures
9.4.1Low-impedance front-end
9.4.2High-impedance (integrating) front-end
9.4.3The transimpedance front-end
9.5 FET preamplifiers
9.5.1Gallium arsenide MESFETs
9.5.2PIN–FET hybrid receivers
9.6 High-performance receivers
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Optical amplifiers
10.3 Semiconductor optical amplifiers
10.3.1 Theory
10.3.2Performance characteristics
10.3.3Gain clamping
10.3.4Quantum dots
10.4 Fiber and waveguide amplifiers
10.4.1Rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers
10.4.2Raman and Brillouin fiber amplifiers
10.4.3Waveguide amplifiers and fiber amplets
10.4.4Optical parametric amplifiers
10.4.5Wideband fiber amplifiers
10.5 Wavelength conversion
10.5.1Cross-gain modulation wavelength converter
10.5.2Cross-phase modulation wavelength converter
10.5.3Cross-absorption modulation wavelength converters
10.5.4Coherent wavelength converters
10.6 Optical regeneration
11.2Integrated optics and photonics technologies
11.3Planar waveguides
11.4Some integrated optical devices
11.4.1Beam splitters, directional couplers and switches
11.4.3Periodic structures for filters and injection lasers
11.4.4Polarization transformers and wavelength converters
11.5Optoelectronic integration
11.6Photonic integrated circuits
11.7Optical bistability and digital optics
11.8Optical computation
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The optical transmitter circuit
12.2.1Source limitations
12.2.2LED drive circuits
12.2.3Laser drive circuits
12.3 The optical receiver circuit
12.3.1The preamplifier
12.3.2Automatic gain control
12.4 System design considerations
12.4.1Component choice
12.5 Digital systems
12.6 Digital system planning considerations
12.6.1The optoelectronic regenerative repeater
12.6.2The optical transmitter and modulation formats
12.6.3The optical receiver
12.6.4Channel losses
12.6.5Temporal response
12.6.6Optical power budgeting
12.6.7Line coding and forward error correction
12.7 Analog systems
12.7.1Direct intensity modulation (D–IM)
12.7.2System planning
12.7.3Subcarrier intensity modulation
12.7.4Subcarrier double-sideband modulation (DSB–IM)
12.7.5Subcarrier frequency modulation (FM–IM)
12.7.6Subcarrier phase modulation (PM–IM)
12.7.7Pulse analog techniques
12.8 Distribution systems
12.9 Multiplexing strategies
12.9.1Optical time division multiplexing
12.9.2Subcarrier multiplexing
12.9.3Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
12.9.4Wavelength division multiplexing
12.9.5Optical code division multiplexing
12.9.6Hybrid multiplexing
12.10 Application of optical amplifiers
12.11 Dispersion management
12.12 Soliton systems
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Basic coherent system
13.3 Coherent detection principles
13.4Practical constraints of coherent transmission
13.4.1Injection laser linewidth
13.4.2State of polarization
13.4.3Local oscillator power
13.4.4Transmission medium limitations
13.5 Modulation formats
13.5.1Amplitude shift keying
13.5.2Frequency shift keying
13.5.3Phase shift keying
13.5.4Polarization shift keying
13.6 Demodulation schemes
13.6.1Heterodyne synchronous detection
13.6.2Heterodyne asynchronous detection
13.6.3Homodyne detection
13.6.4Intradyne detection
13.6.5Phase diversity reception
13.6.6Polarization diversity reception and polarization scrambling
13.7 Differential phase shift keying
13.8 Receiver sensitivities
13.8.1ASK heterodyne detection
13.8.2FSK heterodyne detection
13.8.3PSK heterodyne detection
13.8.4ASK and PSK homodyne detection
13.8.5Dual-filter direct detection FSK
13.8.6Interferometric direct detection DPSK
13.9.2High-capacity transmission
14.2Fiber attenuation measurements
14.2.1Total fiber attenuation
14.2.2Fiber absorption loss measurement
14.2.3Fiber scattering loss measurement
14.3Fiber dispersion measurements
14.3.1Time domain measurement
14.3.2Frequency domain measurement
14.4Fiber refractive index profile measurements
14.4.1Interferometric methods
14.4.2Near-field scanning method
14.4.3Refracted near-field method
14.5Fiber cutoff wavelength measurements
14.6Fiber numerical aperture measurements
14.7Fiber diameter measurements
14.7.1Outer diameter
14.7.2Core diameter
14.8Mode-field diameter for single-mode fiber
14.9Reflectance and optical return loss
14.10Field measurements
14.10.1Optical time domain reflectometry
15.2Optical network concepts
15.2.1Optical networking terminology
15.2.2Optical network node and switching elements
15.2.3Wavelength division multiplexed networks
15.2.4Public telecommunications network overview
15.3Optical network transmission modes, layers and protocols
15.3.1Synchronous networks
15.3.2Asynchronous transfer mode
15.3.3Open Systems Interconnection reference model
15.3.4Optical transport network
15.3.5Internet Protocol
15.4Wavelength routing networks
15.4.1Routing and wavelength assignment
15.5Optical switching networks
15.5.1Optical circuit-switched networks
15.5.2Optical packet-switched networks
15.5.3Multiprotocol Label Switching
15.5.4Optical burst switching networks
15.6Optical network deployment
15.6.1Long-haul networks
15.6.2Metropolitan area networks
15.6.3Access networks
15.6.4Local area networks
15.7Optical Ethernet
15.8Network protection, restoration and survivability
A.The field relations in a planar guide
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Optical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice Third Edition John M Senior

Optical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice Third Edition John M Senior

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Published by Maulik Trivedi

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Published by: Maulik Trivedi on Jan 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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