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Adenocarcinoma Intro

Adenocarcinoma Intro

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Published by Lerinor Rose Lim

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Published by: Lerinor Rose Lim on Jan 23, 2012
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01/29/2014

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INTRODUCTION
Adenocarcinoma of the rectum arises as an intramucosal epitheliallesion, usually in an adenomatous polyp or gland. As cancers grow, theyinvade the muscularis mucosa, lymphatic structures, and vascular structuresand involve regional lymph nodes, adjacent structures, and distant sites,especially the liver. Adenocarcinomas comprise the vast majority (98%) of colon and rectal cancers. Other rare rectal cancers, including carcinoid(0.4%), lymphoma (1.3%), and sarcoma (0.3%),. Squamous cell carcinomasmay develop in the transition area from the rectum to the anal verge and areconsidered anal carcinomas. Very rare cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum have been reported. Approximately 20% of colon cancersdevelop in the cecum, another 20% in the rectum, and an additional 10% inthe rectosigmoid junction. Approximately 25% of colon cancers develop inthe sigmoid colon. The incidence and epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis,and screening recommendations are common to both colon cancer andrectal cancer.Colon and rectaladenocarcinomasare the third most commonlydiagnosed cancers in both men and women and account for nine percent of all cancer deaths. The colon and rectum are part of thedigestive systemandcancer forms in thecolonand/or the rectum. These digestive system cancersare often referred to as colorectal. In 2010, an estimated 102,600 Americanswere expected to have been diagnosed with colon cancer and another39,670 were expected to have been diagnosed with rectal cancer. Inaddition, 51,370 Americans were estimated to have died of colorectal cancerin 2010. More than 90 percent of colorectal cancer occurs after age 50 andthe average age at diagnosis is 72. When colorectal cancer has spread toother parts of the body, only 11 percent of patients will survive five yearsfrom the date of their diagnosis. Colorectal death rates have been declining
 
since 1998, due to the increased use of screening tests that allow detectionand removal of colon polyps before they progress to cancer.Dealing with our patient strives as to study more about the differenttypes of Colon and Rectal cancer. Aside from its related to our subjectOncology Nursing many people nowadays lacking in knowledge about certaindisease (rectal adenocarcinoma). By which we have to give more time andeffort to trace the occurrence of such disease. The people nowadays don’tpay much attention to the way they are living their life. Sedentary lifestyle,smoking, eating fatty foods, bowel and elimination, excessive alcohol intake,are the things we improperly practice are included to the risk factor. Being ahealthcare provider we need to inform others who lack in knowledge aboutthe disease, people have to know that there is a good rate of survival if it isdetected earlier. It is also stated that men are more prone to rectal cancerfor the reason of they are smoking, and consume excess alcohol intake thanwomen. There are different interventions and surgical procedure that canhelp to prevent the spreading of the cancer to the other parts and organ of the body. Others include as the saying goes, "An apple a day keeps thedoctor away". Eating a healthy and balanced diet reduces risk for rectalcancer. Many Filipino do not eat enough fresh fruits and vegetables ordietary fiber, while eating too much high fat meat. Eating five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables each day, while cutting down on meat intake willlikely go a long way towards reducing dietary components of cancer risk.Dietary fiber can be obtained directly from fruits, vegetables, whole grainsand beans and from dietary supplements. By this we will have higher chanceof preventing the occurrence of rectal adenocarcinoma.

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