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Vomer Gojkovic_20101220184435

Vomer Gojkovic_20101220184435

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Published by: Catherine Hughes on Jan 23, 2012
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Mojca
Vomer
GOjkovic,Aleaiactaest...
(73-80)
HistriaAntiqua,
1612008.
MojcaVOMERGOJKOVIC
ALEAJACTAEST-
SUBJECTOFAMUSEMENTFROM
POETOVIO
UDe
904:794.9(497.4)"652"OriginalscientificpaperReceived:
6.
10.2008.Approved:7.10.2008.MojcaVomerGojkovicPokrajinskiMuzejPtuj/RegionalMuseumPtujMuzejskitrg12250Ptuj-Slovenijae-mail:mojca.vomer-gojkovic@guest.ames.si
T
hroughcenturies,amerchantroad,theAmberRoad,meanderedinthevalleybetweenthehillsofHalozeandSlovenskeGorice.ItenabledtheformationofsettlementsatthestrategiccrossingovertheDravaRiver.
As
earlyasinthe1stcentury,RomanlegionssettledalongtheprehistoricsettlementsandbuilttheircampattheDravaRiver.Unfortunately,whentheriverbedwasdisplaced,theriversweptawaytheremainsofthecamp,butitcanbelocatedtotherightbankoftheDravaRiveratSpodnjaHajdina.Thepermanentsettlementoflegionscontributedtoafasterdevelopmentoftheareaoutsidethenearbycampfortifications,whereciviliansettlementsslowlybegantodevelop.Inpeacetime,astrongmerchant-tradesmen
's
centerbegantodevelopnexttothecamp.Soldiers,officialsandmerchantsamusedthemselvesbyplayingpartygamesandoutdoorgames,andbygambling.
On
thebothsidesoftheDravaRiverwerediscoveredremainsofarchitectureofinnkeepers'trade.Variousobjectswerefound,amongthemchipsandivories.Apieceofadice-box,andperhapsalsoasmallhammercanbelinkedtogame-playingintheinns.VariousgameswereindudedineverydaylifeofchildrenandotherPoetovians.
Key
words:
Poetovio,Romanlegions,DravaRiver,games
InthevalleybetweentheHalozeandSlovenskegoriceHillsamerchantroadwaswinding,theamberroadwhichenabledthefoundationofsettlementsatthestrategiccrossingpointovertheDravaRiver.Alreadyinthe
1'1
centuryRomanlegionssettledontheterritoryofthepre-historicsettlements,firstthe
LegiaVIlIAugusta,
thenthe
LegioXllI
Gemina,
whichsetuptheircampsattheriver.Unfortunately,theDravaRiver,whendisplacingitsbed,sweptawaytheremainsofthatcamp,but
it
couldbelocatedontherightbankoftheDravaRiverinSpodnjaHajdina(Horvat,Lovenjak,DolencVicic,Lubsina-Tusek,Tomanic-Jevremov,Subic2003,VomerGojkovic2003,VomerGojkovic2004,VomerGojkovic2005).ThepermanentsettlingofRomanlegionswas
73
 
MojcaVomerGojkovic,Alea
iactaest...
(73-80)
HistriaAnliqua,1612008.
Fig.1.Dicewithcup
responsibleforafasterdevelopmentoutsidethecampfortificationsinthevicinity,whereatthetimeofpeaceasettlementofcivilinhabitantsgraduallybegantodevelopintoastrongcommercial-tradesmen'scentre.Soldiersandalsoclerkspleasantlypassedtheirdaysandnightswithpartygames.OnbothbanksoftheDravaRiverarchitecturalremainsshowingcateringactivitieswerediscovered.Variousobjectswerefoundthere,amongthempieces(counters).Afragmentofadicecupmadeofboneandpossiblyasmallerironhammercanbelinkedwithgamesplayedinthetavern(VidrihPerko,VomerGojkovic
2005,22).
InRomantimegameswerevarious,someofthemareknowntilltoday(Ianhuba
1970,
Rieche
1984,
G66ck
1991,
Weeber
2007,22-33).
Boardanddicegames
wereprimarilymeantforadultsandolderchildren.Thegreaterpartofplayingboardswasmadeofinconsistentmaterial,ortheywerejustdrawnonthefloorbeingusedonlyonce.Thepreservedplayingboardsweremostlymadeofstone,marble(MeylanKrause,Agustoni
2000,
40)andeventileswereused.Smallstones,counters,usedforgamescouldhavebeenmadeofvariousmaterials(lilek,Scherrer,Trink!
2005,52-54,
No.
214-218,
Anderes
2006,11,21),
thepreservedonesweremostlymadeofbone,glassandstone.Theyplayeddicewithastragalsanddice.Thediceweremostlysix-sidedandtheyhadthesamedisposalofdotsasnowadays;thetotalofoppositedotsisseven(ltlek,Scherrer,Trink!
2005,52-53,
No.
212-213,
Dzin
2007,47).
74
Inordertoavoidcheatingtheyplayeddiceincups(fig.
1)
orthroughacapsule.Thesimpledicegame,wheretheplayerhadtooutpointhisopponent,wasapuregameofluck;itwaswidespreadandhadaquitebadreputation,becauseitwasplayedformoney.TherearesomepreservedreportstellingusthatsomeRomanemperorswereaddictedtothatgameandtheyplayeditthewholeyearthroughwithmostlyhighamountsofmoney,althoughthedicegameswereallowedonlyatthetimeofSaturnalia,inDecember.
Boardgames
weremorereputable.Thosegameswerementionedtobeused,togetherwithbooks,foramusementanditlookslikethattheywereanimportantpartofgeneraleducation(Weeber
2007,27-31).
Unfortunately,itisverydifficulttoreconstructtherulesofantiquegames.Theboardgameswereplayedwiththehelpofdice.SuchagamewastheAncientGreekgame
pente-grammai
(fivelines)andthe
Romanduodecim-scripta
(twelvelinesordots)thatwasperhapssimilartothegame
backgammon.LUDUSXII(duodecim)SCRIPTORUM
isagamefortwoplayers.
It
consistsofthreelines,eachlinehasgot
12
fieldsandtherearestartingfieldsinmiddle.Eachplayerhasgot
12
pieces.Theobjectiveofthegameistomove(anticlockwise)allpiecesfromtheupperfieldoftheupperlinetothelastfieldontherightbellow.Theplayersplaybyturnswithtwodices.
After
eachthrowtheplayercandecide,whetherhewilljumpsomanyfieldswithonepieceusingthedotsononedice,orwillhealsousethedotsonthesecondone(thenumberoffieldsisequaltothenumberofdotsondices).Onepiece,standingaloneonthefield,canbethrownoutbytheopponent'spieceandtheplayermustbegintoplayfromthestart.Ifthereareseveralpiecesonafieldthen,thatfieldisclosedfortheopponent.
If
aplayerthrowsthesamenumbertwice,hecanthrowoncemore.Thewinneristheplayerwhosepieceswentacrossallfields.Thefinalnumbercanbelargerasthenumberofneededofdots.
1.
Dice,markedwithnumbersfrom1to
6.
Sumofoppositesidesamountsto7.Numbersareengravedwithcirclesanddotinthemiddle.Bone.Dimensions:
1,2
cmx
1,2
cm.Inv.No.PMPR
3277.
Site:Ptuj,ZgornjiBreg,parco
290,
1908/09
(fig.
2).
2.Dice,markedwithnumbersfrom1to
6.
Sumofoppositesidesamountsto7.Numbersareengravedwithcircles.Bone.Dimensions:
1,3
emx
1,3
cm.Inv.No.PMPR
3879.
Site:Ptuj,Panorama,
1911.
3.Dice,markedwithnumbersfrom1to
6.
Sumof
 
MojcaVomerGojkovic,
Aleaiactaest.:(73-80)
HistriaAntiqua,
1612008.
oppositesidesamountsto7.Numbersareengravedwith
Fig.2.Dice,bone
circlesanddotinthemiddle.Bone,green,damaged.
Fig.
3
Dice,amber
Dimensions:1,5cmx1,3em.Site:Poetovio.
Fig4.Counters,bone
4.3dice,markedwithnumbersfrom1to
6.
Sumofoppositesidesamountsto7.Numbersareengravedwithcirclesanddotinthemiddle.Amber.Dimensions:1,3cmx1,2cm;1,4cmx1,3cm;1,8emx2,1cm.Inv.No.PMPR12795-97.Site:ZgomjaHajdina,grave24/1973(VomerGojkovic1996,317)(fig.3).PurestrategygameswithoutdicesweretheassumedlyAncientGreekgame
polis
and
diagrammismos,
andtheRomangame
luduslantrunculorum-
amilitaryorapirategame.Althoughallthreegamesdifferfromeachother,theywereprobablyplayedonboardssimilartoourchessboards,iftheywerenoteventwo-coloured.Theopponent'spieceshadtobecapturedorthrownout.Thosegamesaresimilartothegame
"draughts".
LUDUSlATRUNCULORUM,
theforerunneroftoday'sdraughts,isagamefortwoplayers.Theplayingboardconsistsof8by8squares.Eachplayerhasgot16pieces
(militesicalculi);
inthestartingpositiontheplayersareonoppositesideoftheplayingboardwithpiecesonthefirsttworowsoftheplayingboard.Thepiecesmovediagonallyonesquareforwardsorbackwards,whentheyjumpovertheopponent'spieces,thenthosepiecesareeliminated.Withasinglejumpseveralpiecescanalsobeeliminated,butonlyincase
if
atleastonesquareinthediagonalisempty.Theobjectiveofthegameistodefeattheopponent'sarmy;thatmeanstoeliminateasmanypiecesaspossible,ortoblockthemsothattheycannotmoveinanydirection.5.Counter,bluish.Glass.Dimensions:1,2cm.Inv.No.PMPR3935.Site:Hajdina).
6.9
counters,roundandangular.Bone.Diameter:about4cm.Inv.No.R8280(A375-381,638,639).Site:Ptuj,Panorama,1911(fig4).7.Counter,lens-shaped.Whitestone.Dimensions:2,1em,Inv.No.PMPR8290(A378).Site:Ptuj,Panorama,1911(fig5).8.Counter,lens-shaped.Whitestone.Dimensions:1,7ern.Inv.No.PMPR8291(A653).Site:Ptuj,Panorama,1911.
9.
Counter.Whiteandbluethread,glass.Dimensions:2,2cm.Inv.No.PMPR3414.Site:Ptuj,Zgorn]!Breg,parco290,
1908/09
(fig6).10.2counters.Bone.Dimensions:2,1emand1,6emx1,2em.Inv.No.PMPR3414.Site:SpodnjaHajdina,Avtocesta,Grave
7/1972.
75

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