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Explotation Cinema / El cine Exploitation entre la serie B y Z

Explotation Cinema / El cine Exploitation entre la serie B y Z

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Published by Israel Macias Parra
Descripción de este tipo de cine llamado de "explotación"/ Description about exploitation cinema
Descripción de este tipo de cine llamado de "explotación"/ Description about exploitation cinema

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Israel Macias Parra on Jan 23, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Exploitation film
is a type of film that is promoted by "exploiting" often lurid subjectmatter. The term "exploitation" is common in film marketing, used for all types of filmsto mean promotion or advertising. These films then need something to exploit, such as a big star, special effects, sex, violence, romance, etc. An exploitation film, however,relies heavily on sensationalist advertising and broad and lurid overstatement of theissues depicted, regardless of the intrinsic quality of the film. Very often, exploitationfilms are of low quality in every sense.
Even so, exploitation films sometimes attractcritical attention and cult followings.
Exploitation films may feature suggestive or explicit sex, sensational violence, drug use,nudity, freaks, gore, the bizarre, destruction, rebellion, and mayhem. Such films werefirst seen in their modern form in the early 1920s,
but they were popularized in the1960s and 70s with the general relaxing of censorship and cinematic taboos in the USAand Europe. TheMotion Picture Association of America(and the MPPDA before it)cooperated with censorship boards and grassroots organizations in the name of  preserving the image of a "clean" Hollywood, but exploitation film distributors operatedoutside of this circuit and often welcomed controversy as a form of free promotion.
Their producers also used sensational elements to attract audiences lost to television.Since the 1990s, this genre has also received attention fromacademic circles, where it issometimes called paracinema."Exploitation" is very loosely defined, and has more to do with the viewer's perceptionof the film than with the film's actual content. Titillating material and artistic contentcan and often do coexist, as demonstrated by the fact that art films that failed to pass theHays Codewere often shown in the same grindhouses as exploitation films.Exploitation films share with acclaimed transgressive European directors such asDerek Jarman,Luis Buñuel, andJean-Luc Godarda fearlessness toward handling 'disreputable' content. Numerous films recognized as classics contain levels of sex, violence, andshock typically associated with exploitation films, includingStanley Kubrick 's
. Buñuel's
contains elements of the modern splatter film. It has further beenstated that if  
had been made in Europe, that it would be considered anart film, while if 
had been made in the U.S., it would have beencategorized as a low-budget horror film. The art film and exploitation film audiencesare both considered to have tastes that reject the mainstream Hollywood offerings.
Exploitation films often exploited events that occurred in the news and were in the shortterm public consciousness that a major film studiomay avoid due to the length of time of producing a major film. For example
(1938) addressed a problem of older men marrying very young women in theOzarks. Other issues such asdrug usein films like
(1936) attracted an audience that a major film studio wouldusually avoid to keep their  mainstreamand respectable reputations. But if the motivations were strong enough, major studios might become involved, as inWarner Bros.1969 anti-LSD, anti-counterculturefilmThe Big Cube.
 (1938) portrayed the dangers of venereal disease from premarital sex. The film 
(1945), a film about pregnancy and childbirth, was promoted in lurid terms.
(1949) combined the themes of drug use and promiscuous sex. In theearly days of film, when exploitation films relied on such sensational subjects as these,they had to present them within the context of a very conservative moral viewpoint inorder to avoid censorship, as movies were not at the time considered to enjoy FirstAmendmentprotection.
Severalwar filmswere made about theWinter War  in Finland,theKorean War and the Vietnam War before the major studios showed interest. WhenOrson Welles' Mercury Theatre Halloween1938 radio production of 
shocked manyAmericans and made news,Universal Pictures edited their serial 
into a short feature called 
for release in November of thatyear.
Some Poverty Rowlower budget B moviesoften exploit major studio projects. Their  rapid production schedule can take advantage of publicity attached to major studiofilms. For example, Edward L. Alperson produced William Cameron Menzies' 
in order to beatParamount Pictures'prestigious production of director  George Pal's 
to the cinemas. Pal's 
was also beaten to the cinemas byRobert Clarke'sEdgar G. Ulmer  film
(1960). As a result, many major studios, producers, and stars keep their projects secret.
[edit] Grindhouses and drive-ins
Grindhouseis an American term for a theatre that mainly showed exploitation films. Itis named after the defunct burlesque theatres, on 42nd Street,  New York , where 'bump n' grind' dancing andstriptease used to be on the bill. In the 1960s these theatres were  put to new use as venues for exploitation films.As thedrive-in movie theater (an outdoor theater into which the patrons drive and watchthe film from their car) began to decline in the 1960s and 1970s, theater owners beganto look for ways to bring in patrons. One solution was to book exploitation films. Infact, some producers in the 1970s would make films directly for the drive-in market.Many of them were violent action films which some would refer to as 'drive-in' films.
[edit] Subgenres
Exploitation films may adopt the subject matters and stylings of film genres, particularly horror filmsand documentary films. The subgenres of exploitation films are categorized by which characteristics they utilize. Thematically, exploitation films canalso be influenced by other so-called exploitative media, like pulp magazines.  Exploitation films often blur genre lines by containing elements of two or more genresat a time. For example, Doris Wishman's
 contains both shock documentary and sexploitation elements.
[edit] 1930s and 1940s cautionary films
Exploitation films made in the1930sand1940swere films that got around the strict censorship and scrutiny of the era despite featuring lurid subject matter by claiming to be educational in nature. They were generally cautionary storiesabout the alleged dangers of   premarital sexanddrug use. Examples include
(1945), and
(1949). One exploitation film concerning homosexuality,
Children of Loneliness
(1937),is now considered alost film.

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