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Published by Anne Seidel

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Published by: Anne Seidel on Jan 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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AbstractDemographic statistics show that the percentage of the generation 60+ has risenconsiderably in the past few years. This change has led to a new generation of seniors withother needs than the generation before them. Due to the growth predicted for this populationgroup, there will be enormous challenges not only for the job market but also for retirementand nursing homes.Nowadays, a lot of people require a high standard of living and a high degree of self-determination even in the third phase of their lives. For this reason, all nursing homes willhave to adapt to the needs of this new generation of seniors and provide them with morecomfort and security using innovative technologies.The patented and innovative resistive capacitive identification technology (in short RCID)was developed and optimized for identification systems by the Swiss group KABA HoldingAG.RCID uses the natural electrostatic charge of the human body to capacitively connect the keyin the pocket with the door. Instead of looking for the key as usually and using it to unlock thedoor, the person carries a RCID medium near her body.By merely touching the door handle, the medium will connect with the door lock, whichchecks the access authorization. Due to the comfort resulting from RCID, particularly innursing homes, this technology is able to make an important contribution to the preservationof self-determination and it may replace other access control systems. This new technologyalso offers a number of other fields of application in nursing homes.
AcknowledgementsI would like to use this opportunity to express my gratitude to everyone who contributed tothe success of my diploma thesis.A big thank you is owed to Mag. Franz Kopica for supervising this thesis and for supportingme by always lending an ear to my questions. I want to thank FH-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn.Thomas Sommer for his assistance in editing the physical basics and for his secondproofreading.Many thanks to KABA group and in particular to Theodor Wendt, who helped me with usefultips as well as documents and the equipment I needed.A special thank you to the employees of the nursing home Wienerberg and most of all to Ms.XXX who gave me the opportunity to conduct my practical tests in this retirement home.I want to thank all interview partners who took the time to answer my questions in manyinteresting conversations. My work would not have been possible without the informationthey gave me.Furthermore, I want to thank my family and my friends for their patience and support. Inparticular, I wish to thank my parents who made my studies possible and who have alwayssupported me over the course of the years.
1Introduction and Purpose
Nowadays,ubiquitous computing is getting more and more importantand considerable
or our daily lives. Devices disappear in our environment and becomeself-evidentas a matter of 
;,we use themin the background,
without thinking about how they work. in the
. We expect them to workat
anytime and anywhere. A new technology thatmakes this visioneven more realmore realityi
communicationviaover t
he human body.Usually,t
here are numerous devices in our immediate environment, includingi.e.
smartphones, MP3 players and digital cameras. There are several technologies to connect thesedevices toone anothereach othe
. One option to exchange data,for example between asmart phone and a music player ,is to connect each of themto a separate computer 
via awireto a separate computer 
. Due to the fact that itis’su
nusual to carry wires and computersall the timea
roundall the time, this technology doesnotn’t
itinto the constraints of ubiquitous computing. The vision is that,
or instance, that
wo devices that are closeto each other will be able tocanb
uild up a wireless communication line as if they wereconnected via cable.Other communication technologies which could be used are radio frequency and infraredtechnologies. In the former case,there is the problem thatit is the nature of 
radiation's natureis
to propagate to infinity until stopped andthat itcannot’tb
e restricted to the near-field rangeof a Personal Area Network (PAN)
. The secondtechnology
srestricted by the problem of line-of-sight which doesnotn’tm
atch the criteria of ubiquitouscomputingn
either. Therefore an alternative technology is needed to connect deviceswirelessly which are in the range of a personal area network. Further it needs to be invisibleand able to build ad-hoc networks between diverse gadgets.A new idea of a wireless technology which matchestot
he constraints mentioned above wasfirst described by Zimmermann in 1995. Thiset
echnology consists of two electrodes, thetransmitter and the receiver, and the human body whichacts as presentst
he transmitter medium. It is a physical layer technology which uses the natural electric field of a person’sbody to couple the transmitter tag to the receiver. The ground and air provide return paths for the signal. (ZIMMERMAN, 1996)Compared to the radio system it uses electrodes instead of antennaest
information. Using the human body as a natural electric conductor thism
eans very short
s. list of abbreviations

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