Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Digestive System

Digestive System

Ratings: (0)|Views: 267|Likes:
Published by Christine Balanza

More info:

Published by: Christine Balanza on Jan 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/24/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Digestive SystemTwo groups of organs compose the digestive system:
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
and the
Accessorydigestive Organs
.I.
 
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
or
alimentary canal
is a continuous tube that extends from themouth to the anus through the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. The Length of the GItract is about 5-7 meters.
y
 
The GI tract contains food from the time it is eaten until it is digested andabsorbed or eliminated. Muscular contractions in the wall of the GI tractphysically break down the food by churning it and propel the food along thetract, from the esophagus to the anus.
y
 
C
ontraction helps to dissolve foods by mixing them with fluids secreted intothe tract.a.
 
Mouthb.
 
Most of the pharynxc.
 
Esophagusd.
 
Stomache.
 
Small Intestinef.
 
Large IntestineII.
 
Accessory digestive Organs
a.
 
Teeth- aid in the physical breakdown of foodb.
 
Tongue- assists in chewing and swallowingc.
 
Salivary glandsd.
 
Livere.
 
Gallbladderf.
 
Pancreas
y
 
The other accessory digestive organs, however, never come into directcontact with food. They produce or store secretions that flow into the GI tractthrough ducts; the secretions aid in chemical breakdown of food
y
 
Enzymes secreted by accessory digestive organs and cells that line the tractbreak down the food chemically.
D
igestive system
: Function1.
 
Ingestion
taking food into the mouth (eating)2.
 
S
ecretion
release of water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into the lumen of the GI tract3.
 
M
ixing and propulsion
churning and propulsion of food through the GI tract. The capability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length is called motility4.
 
D
igestion
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.a.
 
Mechanical  teeth cut and grind food before it is swallowed, and then smooth musclesof the stomach and SI churn the food.
 
b.
 
C
hemical- the large carbohydrate, lipid, protein and nucleic acid molecules in food aresplit into smaller molecules by hydrolysis.5.
 
Absorption
passage of digested products from the GI tract into the blood and lymph6.
 
D
efecation
the elimination of feces from the GI tractLayers of the GI Tract`The wall of the GI tract from the lower esophagus to the anal canal has the same basic, four-layeredarrangement of tissues. The four layers of the tract, from deep to superficial are the mucosa,submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.
y
 
From deep to superficial are the: mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
serosa1.
 
M
ucosa
or inner lining of the GI tract is a mucous membrane. It is composed of (1) a layer of epithelium in direct contact with the contents of the GI tract, (2) a layer of 
C
onnective tissuecalled lamina propria, and (3) a thin layer of smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae)
1.
 
E
pithelium
- in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anal canal is mainlynonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium that serves a protectivefunction. Simple columnar epithelium, which functions in secretion andabsorption, lines the stomach and intestines. Located among theepithelial cells are exocrine cells that secrete mucus and fluid into thelumen of the tract, and several types of endocrine cells, collectivelycalled
E
nteroendocrine cells
, that secrete hormones
2
.
 
L
amina propria
is areolar connective tissue containing many blood andlymphatic vessels, which are the routes by which nutrients absorbedinto the GI tract reach the other tissues of the body. This layer supportsthe epithelium and binds it to the muscularis mucosae. The laminapropria also contains majority of the cells of the mucosa- associatedlymphatic tissue (MALT).
C
ontains immune system cells that protectagainst disease. MALT present all along the GI tract, especially in thetonsils, SI, appendix and LI.
3
.
 
M
uscularis
M
ucosae
throws the mucous membrane of the stomach andSI into many folds, which increase surface area for digestion andabsorption.2.
 
S
ubmucosa
consists of aerolar
C
T that binds the mucosa to the muscularis. It contains manyblood and lymphatic vessels that receive absorbed food molecules. Also located in thesubmucosa is an extensive network of neurons known as the submucosal plexus. Also containglands and lymphatic tissue3.
 
M
uscularis
of the mouth, pharynx, and superior and middle parts of the esophagus containsskeletal muscle that produces voluntary swallowing. Skeletal muscle also forms the external analsphincter, which permits voluntary control of defecation. Throughout the rest of the tract, themuscularis consists of smooth muscle that is generally found in two sheets: an inner sheet of circular fibers and an outer sheet of longitudinal fibers. Involuntary contractions of the smooth
 
muscle help break down food, mix it with digestive secretions, and propel it along the tract.Between the layers of the muscularis is a second plexus of neurons the myenteric plexus.4.
 
S
erosa
is a serous membrane composed of areolar
C
T and simple squamous epithelium(mesothelium). Also called the
visceral peritoneum
because it forms a portion of theperitoneum. Esophagus lacks serosa; instead only a single layer of areolar
C
T called
adventitia
forms the superficial layer of this organ.
P
eritoneum
is the largest serous membrane of the body; it consists of a layer of simple squamousepithelium with an underlying supporting layer of areolar
C
T. Divided into the parietal peritoneum,which lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity and the visceral peritoneum, which covers some of theorgans in the cavity and is their serosa.
y
 
O
rgans such as the kidneys, ascending and descending colons of the largeintestine, duodenum of Small intestine, and pancreas are said to be
retroperitoneal
M
outh
also referred to as the oral or buccal cavity is formed by the cheeks, hard and soft palates andtongue.
y
 
P
alate
is a wall or septum that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity,forming the roof of the mouth. Important because it makes it possible tochew and breathe at the same time.
1.
 
H
ard palate
the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth- is formed bythe maxillae and palatine bones and covered by a mucous membrane
2
.
 
S
oft palate
which forms the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth,is an arch-shaped muscular partition between the oropharynx andnasopharynx
y
 
U
vula
hanging from the free border of the soft palate.a.
 
During swallowing, the soft palate and uvula are drawnsuperiorly, closing off the nasopharynx and preventingswallowed foods and liquids from entering the nasal cavity.
o
 
S
alivary gland
is a gland that releases a secretion called saliva into the oral cavity.
O
rdinarily, just enough saliva is secreted to keep the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx moistand to cleanse the mouth and teeth. When food enters the mouth, however, secretion of salivaincreases and it lubricates, dissolves, and begins the chemical breakdown of the food. Threepairs of salivary glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.
o
 
C
omposition and function of saliva
is 9.5 % water and 0.5% solutes. Among the solutesare ions, including sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate and phosphate. Alsopresent are some dissolved gases and various organic substances, including urea anduric acid, mucus, immunoglobuling A, the bacteriolytic enzyme lysozyme, and salivaryamylase, a digestive enzyme that acts on starch.
 
Provides a medium for dissolving foods so that they can be tasted by gustatoryreceptors and so that digestive reactions can begin.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->