Chem 121 Separation of A Mixture M .Dunn1SEPARATION OF A MIXTUREPURPOSE: Separate the components of a mixture of sand and sodium chloride. Calculate the percentageof each component in the mixture and the percent recovery of the components.BACKGROUND INFORMATIONSome naturally occurring materials are mixtures of two or more substances.
are not uniform throughout. You can often see the individual particles of the components. Rocks andsoil are examples of such mixtures.A variety of methods are available for separating the components of a mixture.
of separation use differences in physical properties of the components of a mixture, such as solubility orboiling point. In the following discussion we will consider a number of physical methods of separation.We will demonstrate the use of each of these methods in separating a
, that is, a mixturecontaining two components.
is a process of separating a solid from a liquid by passing the liquid through a porous materialsuch as filter paper.. The solid is unable to pass through the pores in the filter paper and remains on thefilter paper. This solid is called residue. The liquid that passes through the paper is called filtrate. Forexample, we can separate the components of a heterogeneous mixture of solid AgCl and water, byfiltration. In such a separation, AgCl is the residue, and water is the filtrate.
is a separation process in which a solution is heated to remove the solvent. The substance,or residue, remaining after the solvent has evaporated is the substance originally dissolved in thesolvent. For example, we can separate the components of a homogeneous mixture of potassiumbromide, KBr, dissolved in water by evaporation. When we heat the solution, the solvent (water)evaporates, leaving the residue, KBr.
is a separation process that can be used when one component of a binary mixture is solublein a particular solvent and the other is not. The component that is insoluble in the extracting solvent canbe recovered by removing the solvent containing the dissolved component by filtration. For example,we can separate the component of a heterogeneous mixture of solid KBr and solid AgCl by extractionwith water. When we place the mixture in water, KBr dissolves and AgCl does not. We can then recoverthe AgCl by filtration. Finally, we can evaporate the solvent from the filtrate to recover the KBr.In this experiment you will use the different properties of the components of a mixture of magnetite, Fe,sand, SiO2, and sodium chloride, NaCl. You will separate the components by using a magnet to separatethe iron, then adding water to dissolve the NaCl, filtering the insoluble SiO2 and evaporating the waterfrom the filtrate to recover the solid NaCl. After drying and weighing the three recovered compounds,you will calculate the percentage of each component in your starting mixture. You will also calculate thepercent error to determine the efficiency of your separation.