gency analysis functionality,as shown in Figure 2. With aclick of a button the full contingency analysis set was run (inabout a second),with the results displayed based upon theseverity of the violations. The case was designed so it had atotal of seven initial violations caused by three different con-tingencies with all the violations in the western (left) portionof the system. Of the seven,six were transmission line over-loads and one was a low bus voltage (defined as being lessthan 0.90 per unit).To make the project assessable to students with only abackground in power flow,but not necessarily in economicdispatch or optimal power flow (OPF),for the initial projectthe real power outputs of all the generators were assumed tobe fixed,with any change in losses picked up by the systemslack bus (bus SLACK345 shown in the upper right-hand por-tion of the one-line). This simplification is relaxed in the moreadvanced project described in the later part of this article.
Upgrading the Grid
The heart of the design project was to determine the leastexpensive set of system upgrades that would remove all of thecontingent violations. Of course,in real life a design engineerwould be presented with a wide variety of different designpossibilities,such as upgrading existing lines,constructingnew lines,constructing new generation,adding power systemcontrol devices such as switched capacitors or FACTs,imple-menting interruptible load control,or moving substation loadthrough changes in the distribution system. However,simulta-neously many of these possibilities would be eliminatedthrough considerations such as cost,right-of-way restrictions,public opposition to new construction,and environmentalconstraints.To make the student design project manageable yet stillinteresting,the choices were limited to adding a new 138/69-kV transformer and associated bus work and building newtransmission lines on some of the eight right-of-ways identi-fied using the yellow lines in Figure 3. Cost information wasprovided for two different-sized transformers (101 MVA and187 MVA),and three different types of line conductors forpotential 69-kV lines (Partridge,Lark,and Rook conductortypes),and three for the potential 138-kV line (Lark,Rook,and Condor types). The assumed costs for each of the right-of-ways are shown in Table 1.The students were then responsible for determining theparameters for the new lines using the conductor type,aninstructor-provided transmission tower configuration,and theright-of-way length. Providing the students with only the con-ductor type and tower configuration requires that they derivethe model parameters,providing a nice reinforcement of trans-mission-line modeling concepts. For this article a symmetric
power & energy magazine
Initial one-line for the 37-bus design case.