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PS ANALYSIS - Design Case Study - UIUC - Overbye

PS ANALYSIS - Design Case Study - UIUC - Overbye

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An article by Prof. Overbye, T. of UIUC.
An article by Prof. Overbye, T. of UIUC.

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Published by: fghghfkd58 on Jan 24, 2012
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Fostering Intuitive Mindfor Power System Design 
 © WI   
A case study showing how a designproject can be used to provideintuitive insight when teachingpower system design
Thomas J.Overby
ONE OF THE MOST CHALLENGING ASPECTS OF ENGINEERINGEDUCATIONis togive students an intuitive feel for the systems they are studying. Historically,engi-neering schools have excelled at providing their undergraduate students with a strongbackground in the basic sciences and the theoretical fundamentals of engineering. Such abackground has been,and continues to be,crucial. But while paper and pencil exercisescan be quite useful for highlighting these fundamentals,they often fall short in impartingthe desired intuitive system insight. Yet such insight can be crucial,particularly as a newengineer moves from straightforward analysis into the domain of design. To help,this arti-cle provides a case study example of how a design project can be used to provide suchintuitive insight into both basic power system operation involving power flow and con-tingency analysis as well as more advanced topics involving an hourly locational margin-al price (LMP) power market. This design project is based upon one developed by theauthor that is included in the
Power System Analysis and Design
textbook (third edition),and it is solved using the PowerWorld Simulator software.
The Starting Point
In the design project the students are asked to develop the least-expensive option for
power & energy magazine 
july/august 2003
1540-7977/03/$17.00©2003 IEEE
upgrading a 37-bus,nine-generatorpower system so that for the specifiedloading of 833 MW the system will have noflow or voltage violations for either the base case or forthe set of all line-outage contingences. A one-line of the system,whichwas derived from the transmission grid of an actual urban area,is shownin Figure 1. In deciding on the size of the power flow case for thisproject the goal was to present the students with a sufficientlylarge case so they could better understand the complexitiesassociated with interconnected power system design,yet one small enough to prevent them from beingcompletely overwhelmed. Thirty-seven busesseemed like a good compromise,with theadded advantage that the one-line could becompletely displayed on a computer screen withreasonably sized components. The students wereprovided with a completely defined power systemmodel and one-line,including generator costcharacteristics,and the set of 57 single trans-mission line and transformer outage contingen-cies. The system contained 345-,138-,and69-kV buses.Key to providing the students withintuitive insight into the operation of such a power system is the use of auser-friendly,highly interactivegraphical user interface (GUI)coupled with a robust power sys-tem analysis package. With the GUIstudents could easily make changes tothe system and then immediately seethe impacts of their changes reflectedon the one-line. The use of animatedpower flow arrows also helped to con-vey how power flows from the genera-tors through the transmission network tothe loads. Also,tabular displays of manydifferent quantities such as bus voltagesand loads,generator outputs,and line flowscould be used to supplement the one-line values.To better replicate actual system operation,in which powersystem operators and engineers work to insure that there are no vio-lations in either the base case or for a set of statistically likely contin-gencies,the design project required the students to perform a fullcontingency analysis solution. If done manually this wouldhave required the students to sequentially open each of the57 individual lines and transformers,solve the power flow,check for violations,and then reclose the device. Whileperforming such a procedure manually once or twicemight have some pedagogical benefit,it would rapidlybecome tedious during a design process. Rather,thestudents were encouraged to use the built-in contin-
july/august 2003
power & energy magazine 
gency analysis functionality,as shown in Figure 2. With aclick of a button the full contingency analysis set was run (inabout a second),with the results displayed based upon theseverity of the violations. The case was designed so it had atotal of seven initial violations caused by three different con-tingencies with all the violations in the western (left) portionof the system. Of the seven,six were transmission line over-loads and one was a low bus voltage (defined as being lessthan 0.90 per unit).To make the project assessable to students with only abackground in power flow,but not necessarily in economicdispatch or optimal power flow (OPF),for the initial projectthe real power outputs of all the generators were assumed tobe fixed,with any change in losses picked up by the systemslack bus (bus SLACK345 shown in the upper right-hand por-tion of the one-line). This simplification is relaxed in the moreadvanced project described in the later part of this article.
Upgrading the Grid
The heart of the design project was to determine the leastexpensive set of system upgrades that would remove all of thecontingent violations. Of course,in real life a design engineerwould be presented with a wide variety of different designpossibilities,such as upgrading existing lines,constructingnew lines,constructing new generation,adding power systemcontrol devices such as switched capacitors or FACTs,imple-menting interruptible load control,or moving substation loadthrough changes in the distribution system. However,simulta-neously many of these possibilities would be eliminatedthrough considerations such as cost,right-of-way restrictions,public opposition to new construction,and environmentalconstraints.To make the student design project manageable yet stillinteresting,the choices were limited to adding a new 138/69-kV transformer and associated bus work and building newtransmission lines on some of the eight right-of-ways identi-fied using the yellow lines in Figure 3. Cost information wasprovided for two different-sized transformers (101 MVA and187 MVA),and three different types of line conductors forpotential 69-kV lines (Partridge,Lark,and Rook conductortypes),and three for the potential 138-kV line (Lark,Rook,and Condor types). The assumed costs for each of the right-of-ways are shown in Table 1.The students were then responsible for determining theparameters for the new lines using the conductor type,aninstructor-provided transmission tower configuration,and theright-of-way length. Providing the students with only the con-ductor type and tower configuration requires that they derivethe model parameters,providing a nice reinforcement of trans-mission-line modeling concepts. For this article a symmetric
power & energy magazine 
july/august 2003
figure 1.
Initial one-line for the 37-bus design case.

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