3 Centrality Indices
Dirk Kosch¨ utzki,
Katharina Anna Lehmann,
Leon Peeters, Stefan Richter,Dagmar Tenfelde-Podehl,
and Oliver Zlotowski
Centrality indices are to quantify an intuitive feeling that in most networks somevertices or edges are more central than others. Many vertex centrality indiceswere introduced for the ﬁrst time in the 1950s: e.g., the Bavelas index [50, 51],degree centrality  or a ﬁrst feedback centrality, introduced by Seeley .These early centralities raised a rush of research in which manifold applicationswere found. However,not every centrality index was suitable to every application,so with time, dozens of new centrality indices were published. This chapter willpresent some of the more inﬂuential, ‘classic’ centrality indices. We do not strivefor completeness, but hope to give a catalog of basic centrality indices with someof their main applications.In Section 3.1 we will begin with two simple examples to show how centralityindices can help to analyze networks and the situation these networks represent.In Section 3.2 we discuss the properties that are minimally required for a real-valued function on the set of vertices or edges of a graph to be a centrality indexfor vertices and edges, respectively.In subsequent Sections 3.3–3.9, various families of vertex and edge centrali-ties are presented. First, centrality indices based on distance and neighborhoodare discussed in Section 3.3. Additionally, this section presents in detail someinstances of facility location problems as a possible application for centralityindices. Next we discuss the centrality indices based on shortest paths in Sec-tion 3.4. These are naturally deﬁned for both, vertices and edges. We decided topresent both, vertex and edge centrality indices, in one chapter together sincemany families of centrality indices are naturally deﬁned for both and many in-dices can be easily transformed from a vertex centrality to an edge centrality, andvice versa. Up to date there have been proposed many more centrality indices forvertices than for edges. Therefore, we discuss general methods to derive an edgecentrality out of the deﬁnition of a vertex centrality in Section 3.5. The generalapproach of vitality measures is also applicable to edges and vertices. We willdescribe this family in Section 3.6. In Section 3.7, a family of centrality indicesis presented that is derived from a certain analogy between information ﬂowand current ﬂow. In Section 3.8 centrality indices based on random processesare presented. In Section 3.9 we present some of the more prominent feedbackcentralities that evaluate the importance of a vertex by evaluating the centralityof its surrounding vertices.
U. Brandes and T. Erlebach (Eds.): Network Analysis, LNCS 3418, pp. 16–61, 2005.c
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005