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Zdenìk Stuchlík, Hana Kuèáková and Petr Slaný- Equilibrium con gurations of perfect fluid in Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter spacetimes

Zdenìk Stuchlík, Hana Kuèáková and Petr Slaný- Equilibrium con gurations of perfect fluid in Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter spacetimes

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Proceedingsof 
 RAGtime8/9,15–19/19–21September,2006/2007,Hradec nadMoravicí,Opava,Czech Republic
433
S.HledíkandZ.Stuchlík,editors,SilesianUniversityinOpava,2007,pp.433–447
EquilibriumconfigurationsofperfectfluidinReissner–Nordström–deSitterspacetimes
ZdeněkStuchlík,Hana Kučáková andPetrSla
InstituteofPhysics,FacultyofPhilosophy&Science,SilesianUniversityinOpava,Bezručovonám.13,CZ-74601Opava,CzechRepublic
 ABSTRACT
Marginallystable perfectfluidtori withuniformdistributionof specificangularmo-mentumaredeterminedintheReissner–Nordström–deSitterblack-holeandnaked-singularityspacetimes. Perfect fluid toroidal configurations are allowed only in thespacetimesadmittingexistenceofstablecirculargeodesics. Theconfigurationswithequipotential surfaces crossing itself in a cusp allow accretion (inner cusp) and/orexcretion (outer cusp) of matter from the toroidal configuration. The classificationof the Reissner–Nordström–de Sitter spacetimes according to the properties of themarginallystabletoriisgiven.
1 INTRODUCTION
Many observations suggest that the energy sources in quasars and active galactic nucleiare accretion discs orbiting massive black-holes. However, despite the cosmic censorshiphypothesis (Penrose, 1969) that is not probed yet, existence of naked singularities relatedtothe blackholesolutionsofthe Einsteinequationsisnotexcluded(see, e.g., deFeliceand Yunqiang,2001)andisstillworthofconsideration.The accretion discs could be geometrically thin with low accretion rates and negligiblepressure,characterizedbyquasicirculargeodeticalmotion,orgeometricallythickwithhighaccretion rates and relevant pressure gradients that could be, in the basic approximation,determined by equipotential surfaces of test perfect fluid orbiting the central object (Ab-ramowicz,1998).The presence of a repulsive cosmological constant (dark, or vacuum, energy)
Λ
0
10
56
cm
2
indicated by wide range of cosmological tests (Spergel et al., 2003) couldinfluencesignificantlythepropertiesoftheaccretiondiscs(Stuchlík,2005), asshownbothfor the Schwarzschild–de Sitter (SdS) spacetimes (Stuchlík and Hledík, 1999; Stuchlíket al., 2000) and Kerr–de Sitter (KdS) spacetimes (Stuchlík and Slaný, 2004; Slaný andStuchlík,2005).Geodetical motion and related thick accretion disc properties in the Reissner–Nord-ström–de Sitter (RNdS) spacetimes were studied in Stuchlík and Hledík (2002). Sincesomecharacteristicsofthe geodeticalmotion inRNdSspacetimesdifferfromthose inSdSand KdS spacetimes, we shall study here properties of equilibrium tori in the RNdSspacetimes.
978-80-7248-419-5 ©2007SUinOpava. Allrightsreserved.
 
434
Z.Stuchlík,H.KučákoandP.Slaný
Recall that Reissner–Nordström–(anti-)de Sitter (RN(a)dS) black-hole spacetimes andsome RNdS black-hole spacetimes a region containing stable circular geodesics exists,which allows accretion processes in the disk regime. On the other hand, around somenaked singularities even two separated regions with stable circular geodesics exist. Theinnerregionislimitedfrombelowbyparticleswithzeroangularmomentumthatarelocatedinstableequilibriumpositions(StuchlíkandHledík,2002).The hydrodynamical structure of perfect fluid orbiting RNdS black holes (and naked-singularities) is investigated for configurations with uniform distribution of angular mo-mentum density. In the black-hole and the naked-singularity backgrounds admitting theexistence of stable circular geodesics, closed equipotential surfaces with a cusp, allowingtheexistenceoftoroidalaccretiondisks,canexist(Stuchlíketal.,2000).It is well known that at low accretion rates the pressure is negligible, and the accretiondisk is geometrically thin. Its basic properties are determined by the circulargeodesic mo-tion in the black-hole (naked-singularity) background (Novikov and Thorne, 1973). Athigh accretion rates, the pressure is relevant, and the accretion disk must be geometric-ally thick (Abramowicz et al., 1988). Its basic properties are determined by equipotentialsurfaces of test perfect fluid (i.e., perfect fluid that does not alter the black-hole geometry)rotatingintheblack-hole(naked-singularity)background.The accretionispossible, ifatoroidalequilibriumconfigurationofthetest fluidcontain-ing a critical, self-crossing equipotential surface can exist in the background. The cuspof this equipotential surface corresponds to the inner edge of the disk, and the accretioninflowofmatterintotheblackholeispossibleduetoamechanicalnon-equilibriumprocess,i.e., because of matter slightly overcoming the critical equipotential surface. The pressuregradientspushtheinner edgeofthe thickdisksunderthe radius
ms
,whichcorrespondstomarginallystablecirculargeodesic(Kozłowskietal.,1978; Abramowiczetal.,1978).The simplest, but quite illustrativecase of the equipotential surfaces of the test fluid canbe constructed for the configurations with uniform distribution of the angularmomentumdensity. This case is fully governed by the geometry of the spacetime, however, it containsallthecharacteristicfeaturesofmorecomplexcasesoftherotationofthefluid(Jaroszyńskiet al., 1980). Moreover, this case is also very important physically since it corresponds tomarginallystableequilibriumconfigurations(Seguin,1975).
2 PROPERTIESOFTHEREISSNER–NORDSTRÖM–(ANTI-)DESITTERSPACETIMES
In the standard Schwarzschild coordinates
(
,
,θ,φ)
, and the geometrical units
(
c
=
G
=
1
)
, the RNdS (
Λ >
0
), and RN(a)dS (
Λ <
0
) spacetimes are given by the lineelement(StuchlíkandHledík,2002)
d
s
2
=
1
2
 M 
+
Q
2
2
Λ
3
2
d
2
+
1
2
 M 
+
Q
2
2
Λ
3
2
1
d
2
+
2
(
d
θ
2
+
sin
2
θ
d
φ
2
),
(1)
 
 EquilibriumconfigurationsofperfectfluidinRNdSspacetimes
435
andtherelatedelectromagneticfieldisgivenbythefour-potential
 A
µ
=
Q
δ
µ
.
Here,
denotes mass and
Q
denotes electric charge of the spacetimes. However, it isconvenienttointroduceadimensionlesscosmologicalparameter
 y
13
Λ
 M 
2
,
adimensionlesschargeparameter
e
Q M 
,
anddimensionlesscoordinates
/
 M 
,
/
 M 
. Itisequivalenttoputting
=
1
.
3 GEODETICALMOTION
Motion of uncharged test particles and photons is governed by the geodetical structure of thespacetime. Thegeodesicequationreads
D
 p
µ
d
λ
=
0
,
where
p
µ
d
 x
µ
/
d
λ
is the four-momentum of a test particle (photon) and
λ
is the affineparameterrelatedtothepropertime
τ 
ofatestparticleby
τ 
=
λ/
m
.It follows from the central symmetry of the geometry Eq.(1) that the geodetical motionis allowed in the central planes only. Due to existence of the time Killing vector field
ξ
(
)
=
∂/∂
andtheaxialKillingvectorfield
ξ
(φ)
=
∂/∂φ
,twoconstantsofthemotionmustexist, being the projections of the four-momentum onto the Killing vectors (Stuchlík andHledík,2002):
 p
=
g
µ
 p
µ
=˜
 E 
,
 p
φ
=
g
φµ
 p
µ
=
Φ .
In the spacetimes with
Λ
=
0
, the constants of motion
˜
 E 
and
Φ
cannot be interpreted asenergy andaxialcomponent of theangularmomentum atinfinity sincethe geometry isnotasymptoticallyflat.It is convenient to introduce specific energy
, specific axial angular momentum
L
andimpactparameter
bytherelations
 E 
=˜
 E m
,
L
=
Φ
m
,
=
Φ
˜
 E 
.
Choosingtheplaneofthemotiontobetheequatorialplane(
θ
=
π
/
2
beingconstantalongthe geodesic), we find that the motion of test particles (
m
=
0
) can be determined by an“effectivepotential”oftheradialmotion
2eff 
(
;
 L
,
y
,
e
)
1
2
+
e
2
2
 yr 
2
1
+
L
2
2
.

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