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Need for a Specific Indian Code- Standard for Optimization of Telecom Structures- Seshendra Kumar, C. Eng (I), M.I.E. and Jason T. Kahrs, P.E.

Need for a Specific Indian Code- Standard for Optimization of Telecom Structures- Seshendra Kumar, C. Eng (I), M.I.E. and Jason T. Kahrs, P.E.

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Pride Parmar Galaxy, 10/10+A, 3
rd
Floor 1Sadhuvaswani Chowk Pune-411 001Maharashtra, India
Need for a Specific Indian Code/Standardfor Optimization of Telecom Structures
A Brief Comparison of Wind Pressures per IS: 875 (Part-3) and TIA-222-GCase Study by Seshendra Kumar, C. Eng (I), M.I.E., and Jason T. Kahrs, P.E.
 The
Indian Telecommunications Industry
has the second largest telecommunication network in the world with approximately 35.96 million landlines and 652.42 million wireless subscribers.Since 2001, the Indian mobile subscriber base has increased in size by a factor of more than one-hundred. The projected growth of the Indian telecommunication industry will exceed more than1.159 billion mobile subscribers by 2013.
[1]
To meet this exponential telecom growth and to keep up with advancements in wirelesstechnologies, telecom carriers will need to install/change their equipment on either existing ornewly built towers. Consequently, there will be a lot of scope for the structural analysis/designof telecom structures.The typical practice for engineers to determine wind loads on telecom structures in India is to usethe
 generic
Indian Code, IS: 875 (Part-3), “Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other thanEarthquake) for Buildings and Structures”. There are many international Codes/Standardsdeveloped
 specific
to telecom structures such as TIA-222-G, BS-8100 etc.
The purpose of this paper is to show a need for a specific Indian Code/Standard for optimization of telecom structures based on a comparison of wind pressures determined using IS:875 (Part-3) and the International Telecom Code/Standard, TIA-222-G, “Structural Standard for AntennaSupporting Structures and Antennas”.
The vast majority of telecommunication towers in India are self-support towers. Self-Supporttowers of 30m, 60m, and 90m heights are used in this study. The equivalent design parametersthat are used to determine the wind pressures acting at various increments of the tower height arelisted in
Table 1
. The majority of the area in India consists of warm/tropic regions throughoutthe year. As such, ice loading is ignored for this study. The wind pressures are calculated bytaking the controlling load case for the structure, i.e. Basic Wind Speed without Ice. Forsimplicity, the towers are analyzed without linear and discrete appurtenances. The drag factordifference between the two codes is considered to be insignificant.
This paper was submitted for eWORLD FORUM 2011 Conference
 
Table 1 – Equivalent Design Parameters
Design Parameter TIA-222-G Parameter Equivalent Design Parameterin IS: 875 (Part-3)
Importance Factor/Risk Co-efficientImportance Factor, I =1 Risk Co-efficient,
1
=1Corresponding to Mean ProbableDesign Life (MPDL) of 50yrsExposure Category/TerrainCategoryExposure Category-COpen Terrain with scatteredObstructionsTerrain Category 2Open Terrain with scatteredobstructionsTopographyCategory/Topography FactorTopographic Category, K
zt
= 1General TopographyTopography Factor, k 
3
= 1General Topography
Tables 2 and 3
show the design parameters used for a 30m Self-Support Tower for IS: 875(Part-3) and TIA-222-G, respectively. Wind pressure graphs for 30m, 60m and 90m towers areshown in
Figures 1 to 3
. As shown in
Table 4
, for a 30m Self-Support Tower, the percentagedifference of the design wind pressure calculated using IS: 875 (Part-3) ranges from 29.9% to53.1% higher with respect to TIA-222-G. Similarly, as shown in
Table 5
, the differencebetween the wind pressures for the 60m and 90m towers are 14.3% to 37.8% higher whendetermined using IS: 875 (Part-3). The wind pressure difference is attributed to refinedreliability, safety, and economical factors adopted by TIA.In conclusion, the results of this study show that the wind pressures calculated based on IS: 875(Part-3) are significantly higher than that of TIA-222-G. Consequently, higher wind pressureslead to a less economical tower. Hence, it is recommended that more research is needed todevelop an Indian code/standard for Telecommunication structures considering reliability, safetyand economical factors to obtain optimized telecom structures including Self-Support, Guyed,and Monopoles etc.
Table 2 – IS: 875 (Part-3) Tower Parameters for 30m Self-Support Tower
 
IS: 875 (Part-3) Parameters
 
Units
 
Reference
Basic Wind Speed (3 Sec gust)V
b
50 m/sMean Probable Design Life of Structure
(Note- 1)
N50 Years (Table-1)Probability Factor (Risk Coefficient)k
1
1 (Table-1)Terrain CategoryTC2 (5.3.2.1)Class of Structure B (5.3.2.2)Terrain, Height and structure Size factork
2
1.10 (Table-2)Topography Factor (General Topography)k
3
1.00 (5.3.3.1)Design Wind Speed at the top of TowerV
z
= k
1
*k
2
*k
3
*V
b
55.06 m/s (5.3)Design Wind Pressurep
z
= 0.6*V
z2
1819.0 N/m
2
(5.4)Design Wind Force / Effective Projected AreaF/(EPA) = p
z
1819.0 N/m
2
 
2
This paper was submitted for eWORLD FORUM 2011 Conference
 
 
Table 3 – TIA-222-G Tower Parameters for 30m Self-Support Tower
TIA-222-G ParametersUnits Reference
 
Basic Wind Speed (3 sec Gust)V50 m/sImportance FactorI1 (Table 2-3)Exposure Category C (2.6.5.1)Structure Class II (Table 2-1)Wind Direction Probability Factor for Structure
(Note-2)
K
d
0.85 (Table 2-2)z
g
(Is a factor to calculate, K
z
) 274 m (Table 2-4)
α
(Is a factor to calculate, K
z
)
 
9.5 (Table 2-4)
 
Velocity Pressure CoefficientK
z
= 2.01(z/z
g
)
(2/ 
α
)
1.26 (2.6.5.2)Topographic Factor (For Category-1)K
zt
1 (2.6.6.4)Velocity Pressureq
z
= 0.613K
z
K
Zt
K
d
V
2
I1643.53 N/m
2
(2.6.9.6)Gust Response Factor
(Note-2)
Gh0.85 (2.6.7)Design Wind Force / Effective Projected AreaF/(EPA) = q
z
G
h
29.28 N/m
2
 
Note-1:
Per Table-1 of IS: 875 (Part-3) Mean Probable Design Life (MPDL) for Telecommunication Towers is 100yrs. Importance Factor 1.0 is used for both codes. This value corresponds to 50 years MPDL per IS: 875 (Part-3).
Note-2:
Wind Direction Probability Factor (K
d
) & Gust Factor (G
h
) used in the above calculations are correspondingto the structure only.
Table 4 – Wind Pressures for 30m Self-Support Tower at each 5m interval
S. No. z (m)
IS: 875 (Part-3) TIA-222-G
%Increase inPressurewrt TIA-222-Gk
2
 Wind Pressure,per IS875-(P-3),p
z
(N/m
2
)K
z
 Wind Pressure, perTIA-222-G, q
z
G
h
 (N/m
2
)1 30 1.10 1815 1.26 1397 29.9%2 25 1.08 1750 1.21 1344 30.2%3 20 1.05 1654 1.16 1283 28.9%4 15 1.02 1561 1.09 1207 29.3%5 10 0.98 1441 1.00 1109 30.0%6 5 0.98 1441 0.87 958 50.4%7 0 0.98 1441 0.85 941 53.1%
3
This paper was submitted for eWORLD FORUM 2011 Conference

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