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State and Revolution in Egypt: The Paradox of Change and Politics

State and Revolution in Egypt: The Paradox of Change and Politics

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For years, indeed for decades, aged Arab leaders had retained power. Suddenly, Tunisia witnessed the fall of its leader, Zein al-Abidine Ben Ali on January 14, 2011. On February 11, the President of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, left Cairo for internal exile at the Sharm el-Sheikh resort area; within a short period of time, revolutions and calls for fundamental change gained momentum across the Middle East. This Crown Essay examines the Egyptian revolution, and particularly how the “Prelude to Change”—the 2005 parliamentary elections—set the stage for the current revolutionary ferment in the country. After examining the multiple causes, basic dimensions, and (mis)management of the present revolution, this essay will speculate about possible future directions the revolution might take.
For years, indeed for decades, aged Arab leaders had retained power. Suddenly, Tunisia witnessed the fall of its leader, Zein al-Abidine Ben Ali on January 14, 2011. On February 11, the President of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, left Cairo for internal exile at the Sharm el-Sheikh resort area; within a short period of time, revolutions and calls for fundamental change gained momentum across the Middle East. This Crown Essay examines the Egyptian revolution, and particularly how the “Prelude to Change”—the 2005 parliamentary elections—set the stage for the current revolutionary ferment in the country. After examining the multiple causes, basic dimensions, and (mis)management of the present revolution, this essay will speculate about possible future directions the revolution might take.

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Published by: Crown Center for Middle East Studies on Jan 25, 2012
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04/19/2014

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STATE AND REVOLUTIONIN EGYPT:
THE PARADOX OF CHANGE ANDPOLITICS
Abdel Monem Said Aly
Brandeis University Crown Center for Middle East StudiesEssay 2 January 2012
 
Editor 
Naghmeh Sohrabi
Consulting Editor 
Robert L. Cohen
Production Manager 
Benjamin Rostoker
Designer 
 John McCoy 
Crown Essay Series 
Crown Essays are article-length commentaries intended to foster debate oncontemporary issues related to the Middle East. Based on works of scholarship,this series allows for the authors to engage with and contribute to importantissues in the region in an essay format.
Submission Guidelines 
Crown Essays primarily reect but are not limited to the scholarship of Crown Center faculty and research fellows. For submission guidelines andother questions, please contact crowncenter@brandeis.edu.Copyright © 2012 Crown Center for Middle East Studies, BrandeisUniversity. All rights reserved.Te views expressed in the Crown Essays belong solely to the author and donot necessarily reect those of the Crown Center for Middle East Studies orBrandeis University. 
Crown Essays 
(ISBN): 978-0-9844714-4-7
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface: Personal Notes 1Introduction: Historical and Conceptual Notes 13Prelude to Change: Te 2005 Elections 14Te Revolution: A Chronology 21Te First Wave 22Te Second Wave 23Te Tird Wave 23Te Fourth Wave 24Te Revolution: Why? 25Structural Factors 25Circumstantial Factors 33Mismanagement of the Crisis 38 Post-Revolution Developments 46Te State 46Te Revolutionaries 52rends and Directions 60Four Paradigms 60Te Paradox of the Egyptian Revolution 70 Appendices 74 Endnotes 91 About the Author 95

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