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Srpske Episkopije u 13.Vek, na engleskom

Srpske Episkopije u 13.Vek, na engleskom

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UDC726.5/.7:281.961(497.11)»12«
SVETLANAPOPOVICShepherdCollege,W.v.,USA
THESERBIANEPISCOPALSEESINTHETHIRTEENTHCENTURY
171
Abstract.
-
Theongoingdiscussionconcentratesonthedispositionandarchitecturalcontentofthethirteenth-centurybishoprics,designatedbythefirstarchbishopSavaNemanjic.AlltheavailabledatasuggestthatarchbishopSavagenerallyassociatedhisseeswiththeearlier,eitherLatinorByzantine,ecclesiasticalcenters.Therefore,thesiteswhereheinstalledanumberofepiscopalcathedrashadhadtheirstatuswithinanearlierecclesiasticalhierarchy.TheSerbianbishopricseesweredistributedwithinazoneoflower-rankingsettlements,butnotnecessarilyintowns.Inthirteenth-centurySerbia,anepiscopalseeandmonasterydonotexhibitanyessentialdifferencesinsettlementpatterns,andspatialandbuildingdesigns.SummingupallthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenanepiscopalseeandamonasteryinmedievalSerbia,onemaysaythattheadoptedtwelfth-centurylayoutofamonasticsettlementremainedinuseinthethirteenthcentury,whentheepiscopalseeswereestablished.
Keywords.
-
MedievalSerbia,Episcopalsees,Monasticsettlements
T
heepiscopalseesofthe
autocephalous
(autonomous)SerbianChurchweredesignatedbythefirstSerbianarchbishopSavaNemanjicabout1220.Accordingtothepreservedtranscript
of
theConstitutionCharter,thethenestablishedbishopricswerethoseofZeta,Ras,Hvosno,Hum,Toplica,BudimIje,DabarandMoravice.'RecentresearchhasshownthatthebishopricsofPrizrenandLipljanaretobeaddedtothelist,whichmakesupatotal
of
tenbishopricsadministeredfromthearchbishopricatZica(fig.1).
2
It
hasbeenknownthatanumber
of
seeshadexistedevenearlier,asapartoftheolderecclesiasticalorganization,subordinatedtoConstantinopleorRome.Manyscholarlystudieshaveemphasized,andwithgoodreason,thatsuchanarrangement
of
ecclesiasticalcentersasintroducedby
Sava
coveredtheentirestateterritory
of
SerbiaunderthespiritualauthorityoftheSerbianOrthodoxChurch.'Certainquestions,however,remain,suchaswhatdecidedsuchadisposition
of
seesandthenatureoftheirarchitecturalappearance.Thispaperdealswiththesequestions,takingintoaccountthefactthattheissuesarecomplexandthattheinferencesdrawncannotbeconsideredfinal.Fortheconstitution
of
thefirstbishoprics
of
theindependentSerbianChurchSavaNernanjicreliedonhisthoroughknowledgeoftheByzantineecclesiastical
CTAPI1HAPLI1200l.
organization.Hence,thestructure
of
theSerbianChurchalsorestedonconciliarylegislation,enactedlongbeforeandabidedbyforcenturiesintheByzantine
Empire,
the
center
of
Eastern
Christendom.
The
Nomokanon
of
FourteenTitles
-
themostimportantsource
of
canonlow-establishedinthePatriarchate
of
Constantinopleasearlyastheseventhcentury,doesnotprescribeexplicitlythatabishopricmustbesitedinacity."Althoughmostlyinthecities
of
theEmpire,
some
seeswereinlower-rankingsettlements,asevidencedbytheresults
of
recentresearchgatheredintheseries
TabulaImperiiByzantini,
whichshowthatcertainperiodsandcertainregions
of
theempiresaw
I
Cf.P.J.Safarik,
PamatkydrevnihopisemnictviJihoslovanuv
(Prague,1873),54;
Spisisv.Save,
V.
Corovic,ed.(Belgrade-Sr.Karlovci,1928),196.
2
Cf.M.Jankovic,»EpiskopijeSrpskecrkve1220.godine«,
SavaNemanjic
-
SvetiSava.Istorijaipredanje
(Belgrade,1979),73-84;idem.,
Episkopijeimitropolijesrpske
crkve
usrednjemveku
(Belgrade,1985),17-33(hereafterJankovic,
Episkopije
).
3
Cf.S.Cirkovic,»Pravoslavnasrpskacrkvausrednjovekovnojsrpskojdrzavi«,
Spomenica
0
750-godiJnjiciautokefalnosti
(Belgrade,1985),35-51;D.Bogdanovic,»Preobrazajsrpskecrkve«,
Istorijasrpskognaroda,
vol.I(Belgrade,1981),315-26.
4
N.Milas,
0
kanonskimzbornicimapravoslavnecrkve
(NoviSad,1886),19-31;idem.,
Pravilapravoslavnecrkvestumacenjima,
vol.I(NoviSad,1895),I
ff.
 
172
SVETLANAPOPOVIC
YZANTIN
EMP
IRE
OHRID
Fig.I.
Theserbianepiscopalsees
inthe
13thcentury(after
M.
Jankovic)
morebishopricsthanurban
settlements.P
It
isinthatlightthatthedispositionofthefirstepiscopalseesoftheSerbianChurchshouldbediscussed.Accordingtothecurrentprevailingopinion,thecathedraofHum(regionaroundriverNeretva),coveringthecoastallands,wasinthetownofSton."TheepiscopalchurchatSton(fig.2),dedicatedtotheVirginandknownfromKingUrosI'scharterissuedabout1253,hasbeenidentifiedwiththewell-knownchurchofOurLadyat
Luzine."
AnepiscopalseehadbeenestablishedatStonlongbeforethetimeofSava
5
Cf.J.Koderund
F.
Hild,
HellasundThessalia,TabulaImperiiByzantini
(Vienna,1976),134,135,
139,147-8,155,158,161,
etc.
6
Jankovic,
Episkopije,
171-5;
IstorijaCrneGore,
vol.I(Titograd,1967),339ff.
7
ForthechurchoftheVirgin(OurLadyofLuzine),see
V.
Korac,
GraditeljskaskolaPomorja
(Belgrade,1965),52-57;O.Markovic-Kandic,»Kule-zvoniciuzsrpskecrkve
XII-XV
veka«,
ZbornikzalikovneumetnostiMaticesrpske
14(NoviSad,1978),
23-5;
IstorijaCrneGore,
vol.I,340,givesinformationthatthechurchoftheVirginwasnottheonlyoneoutsidethetown;therewereothers,probablyerectedatthetimeofthefirstNemanjic,i.e.thoseofSt.Peter,St.John,St.Nicholas.
 
THESERBIANEPISCOPALSEESINTHETHIRTEENTHCENTURY
173
o
10m
Fig.
2.
TheChurch
of
theVirginatSton(after
V.
Korac]
Nernanjic-ithadbeenthereby927,atthetime
of
the
IIChurchCouncil
of
Split.
8
It
musthavebeenaLatinone,partofanecclesiasticalorganizationinthejurisdiction
of
Rome.Intheeleventhandtwelfthcenturiestheregion
of
Hum
wasinvolvedinjurisdictionaldisputesovertheSerbiancoastallandsamongthearchbishoprics
of
Split,
Bar
and,subsequently,Dubrovnik.Thecity
of
StonwastheseatoftheGrandzupanStefanNemanja'sbrotherMiroslav-atthetimeruler
of
theland
of
Hum-overwhichSavaseemstohavebeengrantedtherightofgovernancebetween1190and1195.
9
StonbecametheepiscopalseeofHum,one
of
themajorcoastalbishoprics.Theseewasadjacenttotheurbansettlement,whichwascommonpracticeofboththeLatininRomeandConstantinopolitanecclesiasticalorganizations.Nothingisknownaboutitsarchitecturalcontentsapartfromtheepiscopalchurch,considerablymodifiedinthesubsequentcenturies.Itsstatus,anoldepiscopalseewithawell-establishedecclesiasticaltra-
CTAPI1HAPLI1200l.
dition,anditsposition,situatedonaprivateestateoftherulinghouseofNemanjic,seemtohavebeendecisiveinthechoice
of
Ston.AboutthemidthirteenthcenturytheseewasmovedtoPolimlje(theriverLimValley),onceadomain
of
princeMiroslav,andtohisfoundation,thechurch
of
StPeter.
10
Thesee
of
anothercoastalbishopricinthemedievalSerbianstatewasinZeta(thesouthwesternregion,usuallyidentifiedas
Diokleia
-Duklja)and,accordingtothirteenth-centurywrittensources,attheMonasteryoftheHolyArchangelMichaelinthe
Gulf
of
Kotor.!'Scholarsarestilldebatingthelocation
of
theZetacathedraatthetime
of
SavaNernanjic.Theprevailingopinion,however,isthatitwasattheMonasteryoftheHolyArchangelMichaelatPrevlaka.
12
Theolderecclesiasticalorganizationintheregionof
Diokleia
hadbeeninthejurisdiction
of
themetropolis
of
Dyrrachion,inturnsubordinatedtothePatriarchate
of
Constantinople,whilethenewlyconstitutedLatinarchbishopric
of
Bar
begantoplayanimportantroleintheeleventh
century.l'
It
shouldbenotedthatthelistofepiscopalseesinthejurisdictionofthemetropolisofDyrrachion-knownas
Notitiaepiscopatuum
III
(afterParthey'sedition),andrecordingthose
of
Duklja,Skadar,Drivast,PilotandBar-hasbeenincludedin
Notitia
episcopatuum
XofDarrouzes'scriticaledition,whichconfirmsGelzer'spreviousassumptionthattheselistsarenot,ashasbeenthought,earlierthantheeleventhcentury.!"TheArchbishopric
of
Bar,foundedinthesecondhalf
of
theeleventhcentury,emergedasamajorecclesiasticalcenterintheregion,priortoSava's
8
Cf.N.Milas,
SUmusrednjimvijekovima
(Dubrovnik,1914),8
ff;
J.Kalic,»Crkveneprilikeusrpskimzemljamadostvaranjaarhiepiskopije1219.godine«,
SavaNemanjic
-
SvetiSava
(Belgrade,1979)29ff(hereafterKalic,
Crkveneprilike).
9
Cf.M.Dinic,»TripoveljeizpismaIvanaLucica«,
Zbornik
filozofskog
fakultetauBeogradu
III(Belgrade,
1955),69-94,
especially76
ff;
Jankovic,
Episkopije,
171ff.
10
P.Gluncic,»IzproslostigradaStonaXIV-XIXvijeka«,
Spomenik
SANU
CXI(Belgrade,1961),withtheinformation(p.93)thatthebishopricofHuminheritedachurchatSton,bythenabandoned,thatoftheVirgin,thecathedraloftheCatholicbishopricofSton.Cf.Jankovic,
Episkopije,
172ff.
11
ArhiepiskopDanilo,
tivoti
kraljevaiarhiepiskopasrpskih,
L.
Mirkovic,ed.(Belgrade,1935),224.
12
Jankovic,
Episkopije,163-70.
13
Cf.Kalic,
Crkveneprilike,
34ff(withearlierliterature).
14
Cf.G.Parthey,
HieroclisSynecdemusetNotitiaegraecaeepiscopatuum
(Berlin,1866),124-125;J.Darrouzes,
NotitiaeepiscopatuumecclesiaeConstantinopolitanae
(Paris,1981),p.330,
notitia
10,607-23;H.Gelzer,»ZurZeitbestimmungdergriechischenNotitiaeepiscopatuum«,
Jahrbiicher[urprotestantischeTheologie
12(Leipzig,
1886),541-56.

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