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Makalah Simposium FSTPT XI an Ary S - UNRI - Revisi Ke-2

Makalah Simposium FSTPT XI an Ary S - UNRI - Revisi Ke-2

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Published by Ari Sandhyavitri
Approximately 40 % of 300,000 km of road in Indonesia is in the condition of severe damage. The condition has been deteriorating caussed by illegal overloading vehicles passing the road. The damage of the road network also contributes to serious road safety problems.

Road section of Simpang Buatang – Perawang, Siak Regency, Riau was surveyed in the period of 23-37 July 2003, which aim was to identify the magnitude of damage factor affected by overloading vehicles passing this road. Method of the Component Analysis using Bina Marga Standard modified from AASHTO 1972 with some revision in 1981 was applied in the analysis.

It is identified that 40%-45% of the vehicles passing this road were overloading vehicles. Tandem axle vehicles (with overloading of 3,67 ton or > 40% from the equivalent factor (EF) of 9 ton) increased the damage factor of the vehicles by 3 folds (292,61 %). Triple axel vehicles (with overloading of 11,46 ton or > 46% from the EF of 25 ton), increases the damage factor by 4 folds (356,99%). As consequences the road lifetime was reduced by 25% from 5 years to 3,2 years.

Approximately 40 % of 300,000 km of road in Indonesia is in the condition of severe damage. The condition has been deteriorating caussed by illegal overloading vehicles passing the road. The damage of the road network also contributes to serious road safety problems.

Road section of Simpang Buatang – Perawang, Siak Regency, Riau was surveyed in the period of 23-37 July 2003, which aim was to identify the magnitude of damage factor affected by overloading vehicles passing this road. Method of the Component Analysis using Bina Marga Standard modified from AASHTO 1972 with some revision in 1981 was applied in the analysis.

It is identified that 40%-45% of the vehicles passing this road were overloading vehicles. Tandem axle vehicles (with overloading of 3,67 ton or > 40% from the equivalent factor (EF) of 9 ton) increased the damage factor of the vehicles by 3 folds (292,61 %). Triple axel vehicles (with overloading of 11,46 ton or > 46% from the EF of 25 ton), increases the damage factor by 4 folds (356,99%). As consequences the road lifetime was reduced by 25% from 5 years to 3,2 years.

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Published by: Ari Sandhyavitri on Nov 13, 2008
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 Simposium XI FSTPT, Universitas Diponegoro Semarang, 29-30 Oktober 2008
ANALISA PENGARUH KENDARAAN BEBAN BERLEBIHTERHADAP UMUR RENCANA JALAN
(Studi Kasus: Ruas Jalan Simpang Buatan-Perawang, Kabupaten Siak, Riau)
Dr. Ari Sandhyavitri, M.Sc
Dosen Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik,Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya, Panam,Tel. 076163272, Pekanbaru 28293, Riaue-mail:ari@unri.ac.id
Leo Sentosa, ST., MT
Dosen Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik,Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya, Panam,Tel. 076166596, Pekanbaru 28293 - Riau
Ir. Sri Djuniati, MT
Dosen Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik,Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya, Panam,Tel. 076166596, Pekanbaru 28293 - Riau
 
Hendra Yunizar, ST
Alumni Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik,Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya, Panam,Tel. 076166596, Pekanbaru 28293 - Riau
Abstract
 Approximately 40 % of 300,000 km of road in Indonesia is in the condition of severe damage.The condition has been deteriorating caussed by illegal overloading vehicles passing the road.The damage of the road network also contributes to serious road safety problems. Road section of Simpang Buatang – Perawang, Siak Regency, Riau was surveyed in the period of 23-37 July 2003, which aim was to identify the magnitude of damage factor affected byoverloading vehicles passing this road. Method of the Component Analysis using Bina MargaStandard modified from AASHTO 1972 with some revision in 1981 was applied in the analysis. It is identified that 40%-45% of the vehicles passing this road were overloading vehicles.Tandem axle vehicles (with overloading of 3,67 ton or > 40% from the equivalent factor (EF) of 9 ton) increased the damage factor of the vehicles by 3 folds (292,61 %). Triple axel vehicles(with overloading of 11,46 ton or > 46% from the EF of 25 ton), increases the damage factor by4 folds (356,99%). As consequences the road lifetime was reduced by 25% from 5 years to 3,2 years. Key words: overloading, traffic, damage factors, age of planning, pavements.
ABSTRAK 
Dari 300.000 km jalan di Indonesia, 40% rusak berat, dan 10% rusak ringan. Kondisi inidiperparah akibat lalu lintas dengan beban berlebih
(illegal overloading)
yang berdampak mempercepat kerusakan jalan terutama jalan-jalan yang ada di Propinsi Riau. Jalur jalan diSimpang Buatang – Perawang, Siak dipakai sebagai tinjauan studi. Metode Analisa KomponenStandar Bina Marga yang dimodifikasi dari metode AASHTO 1972 revisi 1981 dipakai dalam perhitungan penelitian ini. Dari survey di identifikasi bahwa, 40%-45% dari total kendaraan pengangkut kayu untuk kebutuhan industri kertas di SBP mempunyai muatan yang melebihikapasitas standar. Daya rusak roda kendaraan untuk kendaraan 2 sumbu (dengan kelebihanmuatan 3,67 ton dari 9 ton Muatan Sumbu Terberat , MST) dan kendaraan 3 sumbu (dengankelebihan muatan 11,46 ton dari, MST 25 ton) meningkatkan nilai daya rusak jalan 3 sampai 4kali lipat. Umur rencana (UR) jalan berkurang 36% dari 5 tahun menjadi 3,2 tahun.Kata Kunci : Beban berlebih, kendaraan, lintas ekivalen, daya rusak roda kendaraan, umur rencana, tebal perkerasan jalan.
1
 
 Simposium XI FSTPT, Universitas Diponegoro Semarang, 29-30 Oktober 2008
PENDAHULUAN
Pertumbuhan ekonomi di Propinsi Riau telah mempercepat pertumbuhan kawasan-kawasan industri, seperti industri kayu dan kertas
(pulp and paper)
di sekitar KabupatenSiak. Salah satu dampaknya adalah meningkatnya transportasi kendaraan pengangkutdengan beban berlebih
(illegal overloading)
misalnya untuk pengangkutan kayogelondongan (log) bagi keperluan industri pulp tersebut. Dampak signifikan dario
verloading 
ini adalah mempercepat kerusakan jalan dan membahayakan keselamatan pengguna jalan.Berdasarkan data tahun 2003, biaya pemeliharaan dan perbaikan jalan-jalan Nasional,Propinsi, Kabupaten, dan Kota tidak mencukupi. Dari minimal Rp. 10 trilyun dana yangdiperlukan untuk pemeliharaan dan perbaikan jalan, dana yang dapat disediakan adalahkurang dari 70% (Rp. 6,6 triliun dengan perincian; Rp. 4,5 trilyun dari PBBKB dan Rp.2,1 trilyun dari PKB). (Dinas Permukiman dan Prasarana Wilayah, 2003).Kondisi ini juga dialami ruas jalan Simpang Buatan-Perawang (SBP). Ruas jalan SBPdijadikan sample penelitian untuk mengetahui berapa besar pengaruh daya rusak rodakendaraan dengan kapasitas beban berlebih terhadap pengurangan umur rencana jalan.Metode Analisa Komponen standar Bina Marga yang dimodifikasi dari metodeAASHTO 1972 revisi 1981 SKBI-2.3.26.1987.UDC.625.73 (
 Pedoman Penentuan Tebal  Perkerasan Lentur Jalan Raya, Dirjen Bina Marga,
Dept.Pekerjaan Umum, 1983)dipergunakan didalam penelitian ini.
TINJAUAN PUSTAKATeori Dasar
Konstruksi perkerasan jalan direncanakan dengan mengasumsikan bahwa jalan akanmengalami sejumlah repetisi beban kendaraan dalam satuan
 standard axle load 
(SAL)sebesar 18.000 lbs atau 8,16 ton untuk as tunggal roda ganda
(singel axle dual wheel)
(
Gambar 1
). Di lapangan berat dan konfigurasi sumbu kendaraan didalam perhitungan perkerasan perlu terlebih dahulu ditransformasikan ke dalam
equivalent standard axleload (ESAL)
(Helmi, 2000, Sylvia, 2000 dan Bina Marga, 1983) yang gaya-gaya nyaterdistribusi pada tiap lapisan perkerasan (
Gambar 2
).
2
 
 Simposium XI FSTPT, Universitas Diponegoro Semarang, 29-30 Oktober 2008
Gambar 1. Beban Sumbu Standar 
Sumber: Perkerasan Lentur Jalan Raya, Silvia Sukirman, 1992
Gambar 1.
Standard Axle Load 
Daya Rusak 
. Setiap jenis kendaraan mempunyai roda sumbu yang berbeda, antara lainsumbu tunggal, sumbu ganda dan sumbu triple. Setiap sumbu mempunyai daya rusak 
(damage factor)
berbeda.
Gambar 2
. Pendistribusian Beban Lalu LintasSumber : Konstruksi Jalan Raya, Sidarsono Djoko Untung, 1979
.Daya rusak yang baik apabila dimasukkankedalam
 standar axle
8,16 ton
(single, tandem,triple)
nilai dayarusaknya mendekati atausama dengan 1 (satu),tidak lebih (
Tabel 2
).Sedangkan nilai dayarusak atau
equivalent axle load 
(EAL) suatu beban sumbu kendaraanadalah jumlah lintasan
3
 
Gambar 3. Kendaraan pengangkut kayu gelondongan dengan beban berlebih
Tekanan angin
= 5,5 kg/cm
2
11 cm
Gambar Non Skala
8,16 ton

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