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Margherita Viggiano Yale Thesis

Margherita Viggiano Yale Thesis

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Published by: IvyGate on Jan 27, 2012
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01/08/2013

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Daxbgjmdmto m` Tbaeit~ia|i‟Xbi [g|h gc Kgh mt jmsm`k a`h iccidxmsi* tba|~i| xba` a`} x{g/ihkih t{g|h*~i`ix|axm`k isi` lix{ii` tgyj a`h t~m|mx* fgm`xt a`h oa||g{*a`h alji xg hmtdi|` |icjidxmg`t a`h xbgykbxt gc xbi bia|x.@g d|iaxy|i mt dg`diajih c|go Bmo* lyx isi|}xbm`k mt `aeih a`h ir~gtih xgxbi i}itgc Bmo xg {bgo {i oytx |i`hi| a` addgy`x."Bil|i{t 861</14* XFL-Xbi t{g|h gc xbi T~m|mx mt xbi [g|h gc Kgh."I~b. 361;* XFL-Caxbi|‣ M basi oa`mcitxih xb} `aoi y`xg xbi oi` {bmdb xbgy kasitx oi gyxgc xbi {g|jh6xbm`i xbi} {i|i* a`h xbgy kasitx xbio oi5 a`h xbi} basi ei~x xb} {g|h‣
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M ~|a} cg| xbio6 M ~|a} `gx cg| xbi {g|jh* lyx cg| xbio {bmdb xbgy batx kmsi`oi‣@imxbi| ~|a} M cg| xbiti ajg`i* lyx cg| xbio ajtg {bmdb tbajj lijmisi m` oixb|gykb xbim| {g|h5 Xbax xbi} oa} ajj li g`i5 at xbgy* Caxbi|* a|x m` oi a`h Mm` xbii* xbax xbi} ajtg oi li g`i m` yt."Fgb` 1;61/<1* EFS-M e`i{ a oa` m` Db|mtx‣ Bg{ xbax bi {at daykbx y~ m`xg ~a|ahmti*a`h bia|h y`t~iaealji {g|ht* {bmdb mx mt `gx ja{cyj cg| a oa` xg yxxi|‣A`h jitx M tbgyjh li irajxih algsi oiaty|i xb|gykb xbi aly`ha`di gc xbi|isijaxmg`t*xbi|i {at kmsi` xg oi a xbg|` m` xbi cjitb* xbi oitti`ki| gc Taxa` xg lyccix oi*jitx M tbgyjh li irajxih algsi oiaty|i."< Dg|m`xbma`t 1<6</;* EFS-At oa` mt xbi litx gc a`moajt {bi` ~i|cidxih*tg mt bi xbi {g|tx gc ajj {bi` ty`hi|ih c|go ja{ a`h fytxmdi‣{bi` hisgmh gc sm|xyi* oa` mt xbi ogtx y`td|y~yjgyt a`h tasaki gc a`moajt."A|mtxgxji*
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2.=4/=;* x|a`t. Lg{|a-Mc Aoi|mda hgit `gx }ix basi k|iax {|mxi|t* {i `iih `gx jgge cg| xbi |iatg`tijti{bi|i6jmxi|a|} ki`myt hgit `gx irmtx {mxbgyx c|iihgo gc om`h* a`h xbi|i mt `gxc|iihgo gc om`h m` Aoi|mda."Ajirmt hi Xgdqyismjji*
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 * Sgj. M* « <3;-[bax xbi` mt xbi t~m|mx gc jmli|x}7 M da``gx hicm`i mx5 M da` g`j} xijj }gy o} g{`camxb‣Xbi t~m|mx gc jmli|x} mt xbi t~m|mx {bmdb tiiet xg y`hi|txa`h xbi om`h gc gxbi|oi` a`h {goi`.Xbi t~m|mx gc jmli|x} mt xbi t~m|mx {bmdb {imkbt xbim| m`xi|itxt ajg`ktmhi mxt g{`*{mxbgyx lmat.Xbi t~m|mx gc jmli|x} |ioioli|t xbax `gx isi` a t~a||g{ cajjt xg ia|xby`biihih.Xbi t~m|mx gc jmli|x} mt xbi T~m|mx gc Bmo {bg* `ia| x{g xbgyta`h }ia|t akg*xaykbx oa`em`hxbax jittg` mx bat `isi| jia|`ih* lyx `isi| qymxi cg|kgxxi`."Jia|`ih Ba`h* Aoi|mda` Fy|mtx* 1=88 Ahh|itt m` Di`x|aj ^a|e* @i{ ]g|e-
 
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 M` bmt itta} ‒Mhigjgkmdaj D|mxmdmto a`h ^jy|ajmto*” ~|iti`xih ax xbi T~idmajTittmg` gc xbi Oghi|` Ja`kyaki Attgdmaxmg` g` ‚Xbi \gji gc Mhigjgk} m` xbiD|mxmdmto a`h Oixad|mxmdmto gc Tbaeit~ia|i‟ "[atbm`kxg`* 1=2=-* \mdba|hJism` xgge ~gtmxmg` akam`tx `ig/Oa|rmtxt jmxi|a|} d|mxmdt {bg |ifidx xbi mhia xbax‚g`i da` axxam` glfidxmsi e`g{jihki gc a jmxi|a|} xirx‟ ajjikm`k xbax‚m`xi|~|ixaxmg`t a|i aj{a}t hixi|om`ih l} xbi m`xi|~|ixi|”t mhigjgk} a`h tga|i `isi| glfidxmsi.‟
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Xg dgy`xi| a d|mxmdaj txa`di xbax {gyjh oaei a`} cg|o gc d|mxmdmto mo~gttmlji a`h y`hi|om`i xbi si|} `gxmg` gc d|mxmdmto* Jism`hmtdyttih bmt mhia gc ‚~i|t~idxmsmto g| ~jy|ajmto*‟ {bmdb ‚hgit `gx hi`} xbi~gttmlmjmx} gc glfidxmsi e`g{jihki gc xbi xirx.‟ Tydb ~jy|ajmtxmd ~i|t~idxmsmto‚accm|ot xbax xbi sa|mgyt a~~|gadbit da` axxam` tydb e`g{jihki m` xbim| g{`xi|ot* tm`di xbi} a|i `gx ‒m`xi|si`m`k” xg ‒~|ghydi” hmcci|i`x glfidxt* lyx a|ig`j} hmcci|i`x {a}t gc smi{m`k xbi glfidx.‟ G`j} a ~jy|ajmto k|gy`hih m`|idm~|gdaj |it~idx a`h m`xijjidxyaj bg`itx} ajjg{t cg| tdbgja|j} hmajgkyi6 mx‚i`aljit yt xg jmsi xgkixbi| a`h xaje xg iadb gxbi|* lidayti {i da` y`hi|txa`ha`h |it~idx gy| hmcci|i`x a~~|gadbit.‟
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M` xbmt {a}* d|mxmdmto |ixam`t mxtcy`haoi`xaj almjmx} xg attitt xbi sajmhmx} a`h x|yxb gc txaxioi`xt a`hm`xi|~|ixaxmg`t.
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Xbmt mt it~idmajj} |ijisa`x m` hiajm`k {mxb di|xam` x}~it gc d|mxmdmto xbax a|i ~g~yja| xgha}* {bmdb d|mxmdmvi ajj xbigjgkmdaj a~~|gadbit xgjmxi|axy|i djamom`k xbax xbi} a|i ‒hgkoaxmd.” Tydb d|mxmdt lijg`k xg xbi ogtxhmt~a|axi tdbggjt gc xbgykbx — c|go ciom`mto xg `ig/Oa|rmto* c|go @i{Bmtxg|mdmto xg tei~xmdmto. @isi|xbijitt* xbi} tba|i a`h ak|ii g` a latmd a`xm/|ijmkmgyt aki`ha xbax m`cg|ot xbim| m`xi|~|ixaxmg`* a`h {bmdb xbi} xi`h xgmo~gti `gx g`j} g` gxbi| m`hi~i`hi`x d|mxmdt* lyx ajtg g` xbim| txyhi`xt a`hhi~a|xoi`x dgjjiakyit* xbyt d|iaxm`k a djmoaxi gc x}|a``} a`h cg|dih dg`ti`xm` xbi adahiomd i`sm|g`oi`x* {bmdb mt m` cadx m`xi`hih cg| xbi c|iihisijg~oi`x gc xbi m`hmsmhyaj. Xbmt mt {bax Hi Xgdqyismjji dajjt xbi ‚x}|a``}‟g| ‚hit~gxmto gc xbi oafg|mx}‟
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di`xy|} ajtg |m`kt si|} x|yi cg| xbi dy||i`x ~gjmxmdt gc adahiomd ~yljmtbm`k a`h bm|m`k.M` bmt i~gdb/oaem`k ~gjmxmdaj x|iaxmti* Hi Xgdqyismjji ahh|ittit xbi `gxmg` gc hgkoa a`h xbi `idittmx} gc hgkoa cg| xbi ~|g~i| cy`dxmg`m`k gc byoa`|iatg`6 {i da` xbi|icg|i a~~|g~|maxij} dg`tmhi| bmt |icjidxmg`t î ~|g~gt xbgtid|mxmdt {bg a|i ytih xg m`hmdxm`k xbi xbigjgkmdaj a~~|gadbit xg jmxi|axy|i cg| lim`k ‒hgkoaxmd.” M` ‒Xbi ^|m`dm~aj Tgy|di gc Lijmict aog`k Hiogd|axmd^ig~jit*”
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Hi Xgdqyismjji si|} |iatg`alj} txaxit xbax ‚g`i da``gx oaei mx tgxbax xbi|i a|i `g hgkoaxmd lijmict* xbax mt xg ta} g~m`mg`t {bmdb oi` addi~x g`x|ytx {mxbgyx hilaxi.‟ M`hiih* ‚Ux_bi|i mt `g ~bmjgtg~bi| m` xbi {g|jh tg k|iaxxbax bi hgit `gx lijmisi a omjjmg` xbm`kt g` xbi {g|h gc gxbi|t* a`h {bg hgit`gx attyoi oa`} og|i x|yxbt xbax bi bat ~|gsi`*‟ m`djyhm`k xbi si|} hgkoagc xbi tgsi|imk`x} gc ~ig~ji g` {bmdb hiogd|ad} mt latih.
Usm_
Xbi |iatg` {b}oa` da``gx hmt~i`ti {mxb hgkoa mt kmsi` l} bmt jmomxih dg`hmxmg` — jmomxih m`xi|ot gc m`xijjidx* at {ijj at xmoi a`h g~~g|xy`mx}6 oa` da``gx hiog`tx|axi‚ajj xbi x|yxbt xbax bi oaeit yti gc iadb ha}*‟ lyx oytx addi~x ~|ismgyt x|yxbt latih g` xbi ayxbg|mx} a`h hiog`tx|axmg`t gc gxbi|t* attyoi xbio at xbicgy`haxmg` cg| bmt g{` a`h ~|gk|itt m` xbmt {a}* l} lymjhm`k y~g`x|ahmxmg`.
Usmm_

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