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Source Rock Evaluation in July Field Gulf of Suez Egypt by Gamal Ragab Gaafar

Source Rock Evaluation in July Field Gulf of Suez Egypt by Gamal Ragab Gaafar

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Published by: Dr. Gamal Ragab Gaafar on Jan 27, 2012
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09/19/2013

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Second International Conference on the Role of Applied Geology in Environmental Development, Dec 2009 P. 105 - 126
 
105
EVALUATION OF SOURCE ROCKS AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF JULY OIL FIELD,GULF OF SUEZ, EGYPT.Khaled. A. Khaled*, Gamal Attia*, Gamal. R. Gaafar** and Sameh. M. Ibrahim***
*Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.**Senior Petrophysicist, Petronas Carigali, Kuala Lumpur 
,
Malaysia.***Geophysicist, PGS Data Processing ME, Cairo, Egypt.
ﺮﺼﻣ
 
،ﺲﻳﻮﺴﻟا
 
ﺞﻴﻠﺧ
 
،ﻮﻴﻟﻮﻳ
 
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ﻲﻧﻮﺑﺮآورﺪﻴﻬﻟا
 
ﺪﻬﺠﻟا
 
و
 
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ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺗ
.
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ﺦﻳرﺎﺗو
 
 ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴآﻮﻴﺠﻟا
 
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لﻼﺧ
 
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 ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﺑ
 
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ﻞﻘﺤﺑرﺪﺼﻤﻟا
 
رﻮﺨﺻ
 
ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺗ
 
ﺚﺤﺒﻟا
 
اﺬه
 
لوﺎﻨﺘﻳﻮﻴﻤﻟا
 
ﻞﺒﻗ
 
ﺎﻣو
 
ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻴﻤﻟا
 
رﻮﺨﺻ
 
ﻊﺑﺎﺘﺘﻟ
 
يراﺮﺤﻟا
 
رﻮﻄﺘﻟا
 
ﺎﻀﻳاو
 
ﻦﻓﺪﻟا ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﺑ
 
رﺎﺑﻵا
 
ﺾﻌﺒﻟ
 
دﺎﻌﺑﻵا
 
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جذﺎﻤﻧ
 
ﻢﺳر
 
ﻖﻳﺮﻃ
 
ﻦﻋ
 
ﻦﻴﺳ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا
.
ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻴﻤﻟا
 
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 ﺔﺣﺎﺘﻤﻟا
 
 ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟا
 
تﻼﻴﺠﺴﺗ
 
تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ
 
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ﻲﻧﻮﺑﺮآورﺪﻴﻬﻟا
 
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)
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,
ﻢﻳﺮآ
,
ﺲﻳدور
(
ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻴﻤﻟا
 
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)
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(
ا
 
نﻮﺑﺮﻜﻟا
 
ىﻮﺘﺤﻣ
 
ﺰﻴآﺮﺗ
 
ﻦﻴﻴﻌﺘﻟيﻮﻀﻌﻟ
.
تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺒﻟا
 
ﻞﻴﺜﻤﺗ
 
ﻢﺗ
 
ﻚﻟﺬآ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا
 
 ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﺑ
 
يﻮﻀﻌﻟا
 
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ﺰﻴآﺮﺗ
 
و
 
يراﺮﺤﻟا
 
جرﺪﺘﻠﻟ
 
ﻲﻘﻓﻵا
 
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 ﻂﺋاﺮﺨﻟا
 
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دﺪﻌﺑ
 
 ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴآﻮﻴﺠﻟا
.
 
 ﺑو
 
 ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا
 
ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ
 
لﻼﺧ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺲﻳﻮﺴﻟا
 
ﺞﻴﻠﺨﺑ
 
 ﻂﺳوﻷا
 
ءﺰﺠﻟاو
 
ﻮﻴﻟﻮﻳ
 
ﻞﻘﺣ
 
 ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﻟ
 
ﻲﻧﻮﺑﺮآورﺪﻴﻬﻟا
 
ﺪﻬﺠﻟا
 
ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺗ
 
ﻢﺗ
 
ﻚﻟﺬﻟ
 
 ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑﺾﻌةرﻮﺸﻨﻣ
 
 ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺳ
 
تﺎﺳارﺪﻟ
 
 ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴآﻮﻴﺠﻟا
 
تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺒﻟا
.
 ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻤﺑ
 
 ﺔﻴﻓاﺮﺠﺗاﺮﺘﺳﻮﺜﻴﻠﻟا
 
تاﺪﺣﻮﻟا
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟا
 
نأ
 
تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺒﻟا
 
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لﻼﺧ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻦﻴﺒﺗ
 
ﺪﻗو
 
ﻲﻠﻔﻄﻟا
 
يﺮﻴﺠﻟا
 
ﺮﺠﺤﻟاو
 
 ﺔﻠﻔﻄﻟا
 
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 ﺔﺻﺎﺧو
 
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يﻮﺘﺤﻣ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻰﻧدﻷا
 
ﺪﺤﻟا
 
ﻲﻠﻋ
 
يﻮﺘﺤﺗ
 
ﺲﻳﻮﺴﻟا
 
ﺞﻴﻠﺧ
 
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ﻮﻴﻟﻮﻳاو
 
ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻴﻤﻟا
 
ﺮﺼﻌﺑ
 
ةدﻮﺟﻮﻤﻟاﻰﺘﻟا
 
ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻴﻤﻟا
 
ﻞﺒﻗ
 
ﺎﻣ
 
رﻮﺨﺻ
 
ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ
 
 ﺔﻴﻨﻏ
 
ﻲﻟا
 
ةﺮﻴﻘﻓ
 
رﺪﺼﻣ
 
رﻮﺨﺻ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﻦﻳﺎﺒﺘﺗ
 
ﺎﻬﻧأ
 
 ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا
 
ﺖﺤﺿوأ
 
ﻰﺘﻟاﺪﺟ
 
ةﺪﻴﺟ
 
ﻲﻟا
 
ةﺪﻴﺟ
 
رﺪﺼﻣ
 
رﻮﺨﺻ
 
ﺮﺒﺘﻌﺗ
. 
ABSTRACT
 
July Oil Field is one of the most prolific fields on the Gulf of Suez; it is located in the central part of theGulf of Suez. The present study aims to evaluate the source rocks based on the organic carbon richness,maturation and thermal burial history. Also, two-dimensional model of burial history and thermal evolution for Miocene and Pre-Miocene rocks in the study area is constructed to illustrate the effect of time and temperatureon the oil generation and maturation level of organic matter.Evaluation of the hydrocarbon generation potential is achieved by the wireline log data analysis of Miocene rocks (Belayim, Kareem and Rudeis formations) and Pre-Miocene rock (Thebes Formation) for determination of the organic matter concentration (measured as Total Organic Carbon Content TOC ,%).Moreover, a number of iso-parametric maps are constructed to show the horizontal distribution of the GeothermalGradient and the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC, wt. %) in the studied area. In addition, evaluation of hydrocarbon generation potential in July area within the offshore central part of Gulf of Suez is discussed usingthe obtained results which are supported by some geochemical data collected from some previous publishedworks. The data reveals that all of the lithostratigraphic units in the area have enough TOC values and theMiocene shale and argillaceous limestone are a variably poor to good source rock, while the Pre-Miocene rocks(Thebes, Esna Shale, Sudr, and Matulla formations) are considered good to very good source rocks.
INTRODUCTION
The geology and stratigraphy of the Gulf of Suez have been attracted the attention of a large number of authors, out of them in addition to mentioned before, Ghorab, (1961); Said and El-Hiny, (1967); Abd El-Gawad,(1970); Bartov, et al.,(1980); Evans, (1990); Zahran and Meshref, (1988); Hassouba, et al. (1994), and Zein El-Din et al., (1995 and 1997).The petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potentiality of the Gulf of Suez have been discussed by severalauthors, out of them, Ball, (1916); Bobbitt and Gallagher, (1978); Abd El-Azim, (1970); Rohrback, (1981);Barakat, (1982); Shahin and Shehab, (1984) ; Robertson Research International, (1986); Chowdhary and Taha,(1987); Shaheen, (1988); Shahin et al., (1994); Al-Sharhan and Salah (1995); Al-Sharhan (2003)and Afify et al.(2005).July oilfield is located in the central part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. It is delineated by latitudes 28° 13
\
and28° 18
\
to the north, and longitudes 33° 11
\
and 33° 17
\
to the east (Fig. 1). The study area is located 18 km fromRas-Gharib Town and approximately 20 km from El Morgan oil field. The field is the fifth largest oil field in Egypt.
 
Khaled. A. Khaled, et al
106
Lithostratigraphy
The generalized stratigraphy of the study area and the Gulf of Suez for which three depositional phases aregenerally assumed (
Fig. 2
). Said, (1990) mentioned that, the stratigraphic sequence in the Gulf of Suez province ischaracterized by three depositional phases related to the Miocene rifting events. These are: Pre-rift phase (EarlyPaleozoic to Eocene); Syn-rift phase (Early-Middle Miocene) and Post-rift phase (Late Miocene and Pliocene).The first phase comprises the deposition of formations ranging in age from a postulated Devonian to Eocene.These formations, which include the Nubia sands, are important as reservoir rocks and to a lesser extent as sourcerocks. The second phase is represented by the Lower Miocene and is characterized by its overall excellent qualities assource, reservoir and seal rocks. The third phase, of the Upper Middle Miocene to Upper Miocene and Pliocene age inessence and is characterized by its evaporite seal. It closes the depositional history of the Gulf of Suez graben area(Darwish and El Araby, (1993)).
Evaluation of the Geological Setting of the Gulf of Suez
The structural evolution of the Gulf of Suez area was the subject of numerous investigations, such as those of Said (1962), Garfunkel and Bartov (1977), Meshref, (1990), and Patton et al. (1994). The evolution of the Gulf basin ischaracterized by tectonic extensional episodes producing tension block faulting (horst and graben) and blocksubsidence. However, Kingston et al. (1983) , Rashed, (1990) and Saoudy, (1990) suggested five distinctiveevolutionary stages:1- Deposition of Paleozoic terrestrial clastics over Precambrian crystalline basement with minor tectonic. TheHercynian epiogeny folded and uplifted the Paleozoic deposits. The hiatus caused by these movements is evident in thethinning or absence of sedimentation in many parts of the Gulf of Suez, where Cenomanian strata rest unconformablyon Carboniferous strata.2- Local subsidence and minor transgression occurred during the Permain-Triassic to Jurassic. This is led todeposition of fluviomarine red shales and sandstones.3- Rifting of the continental crust, under tension, in the Early Cretaceous led to formation of a system of grabensvia block faulting. Depressions were later filled with nonmarine sandstone and shale.4- This stage extended from Middle Cretaceous to Miocene, normal faulting continued and the graben systemgradually subsided to form a deep basin. Early and Middle Alpine movements occurring in this stage had significanteffects on the structure of Mesozoic and Paleogene strata and gave rise to a series of folds in the areas of tectoniccompression. Marine water invaded the basin and deposited a range of different sedimentary facies, ranging withlocation in the basin. Marine sandstone and shallow marine limestone, including reefal limestone, were deposited onstructural highs, whereas shale and globigerinal marl accumulated in the low areas. The last strata of this stage werethick salt deposits.5- This stage was the final stage of rift evolution. The interior fracture system widened during the Pliocene-Holocene, the basin fill was uplifted at the rift margins because of continued block faulting, and nonmarine wedge-topstrata (mainly sandstone) penetrated the basin.
Purpose and Scope
This paper attempts to evaluate the source rocks in July Field at the Central Part of the Gulf of Suez, based onthe organic carbon richness [wireline log data for determination of the organic matter concentration (measured as TotalOrganic Carbon Content TOC, %)], maturation and thermal burial history. Moreover, a number of iso-parametric mapsare constructed to show the horizontal distribution of the Geothermal Gradient and the Total Organic Carbon Content(TOC, wt. %) in the studied area. In addition, evaluation of hydrocarbon generation potential in July area within theoffshore central part of Gulf of Suez is discussed using the obtained results which are supported by some geochemicaldata collected from some previous published works.
Methodology
 
Quantity of Organic Material
The amount of the organic matter (OM) required for a sedimentary rock to be considered as a petroleum sourcerock was discussed by a number of researchers. Among them are Cook (1974), Waples (1979), Cornford (1984), Tissotand Welte (1984), Espitalie' et al. (1985), Peters (1986) and Omokawa et al. (1992). In general, the quantity of oilgenerated from a given volume of a source rock is proportional to its TOC (Cook, 1974 and Waples, 1979).The amount of organic material present in the sedimentary rocks is almost always measured as Total OrganicCarbon (TOC) content, which is the first and most important screening technique used to indicate which rocks are of nointerest to us (TOC < 0.5%), which ones might be of slight interest (TOC between 0.5% and 1%), and which aredefinitely worthy further consideration (TOC > 1%), (Waples, 1985, 1980). According to Peters, 1986 the source rocksare classified as follows (
Table 1
):
 
EVALUATION OF SOURCE ROCKS
 
107
Quality TOC (wt. , %) ranges
Poor 0 - 0.5Fair 0.5 - 1.0Good 1.0 - 2.0Very Good > 2.0
Table 1
Source Rock Types (after  Peters, 1986)Schmoker (1979) drew the attention to the determination of the organic matter within shale sequence using thecombination of compensated formation density log (FDC) with the gamma-ray log (GR). The use of this method ispreferred because the density log is more common and available than core samples. Moreover, the continuouslyrecorded density log eliminates the statistical uncertainties of the limited sampling of the formation. Also, determination of TOC by log analysis proved to be less expensive than the classical analysis of core samples. In the present work, thetotal organic carbon is calculated by using Schmoker and Hester (1983) equation and Meyer and Nederlof (1984)equation, after applying the borehole corrections to the density log readings:
Q
o
= (
ρ
b
-
ρ
) / (
ρ
b
ρ
o
)
(Meyer and Nederlof, 1984) (1)where:Q
o
is the organic content by volume (vol., %)
ρ
b
is the bulk density of a compacted shale sequence with no organic matter (
ρ
b = 2.7 gm/cc).
ρ
is the density of the shale sequence within the studied units.
ρ
o
is the organic matter density.
TOC = Q
o
(100 *
ρ
o
) / (R *
ρ
)
(Schmoker and Hester, 1983) (2)where:
R
is the ratio between the weight percent of organic matter and organic carbon and depends on certainparameters as depth and temperature, Schmoker used R= 1.3.
Maturity of Organic Material
Many parameters are used in petroleum exploration for evaluating the thermal evolution of source rocks and their OM during the different stages of maturation. The atomic H/C versus O/C diagram was developed by Van Krevelen(1961) is considered the most reliable method for following the chemical processes that occur during coal maturation.These atomic ratios are replaced by HI and OI in case of using the Rock-Eval Pyrolysis. The concentration andmolecular distribution hydrocarbons contained in a rock depend on both the type of the parent organic matter and itsdegree of thermal alteration (Stoneley, 1995). In this study, the thermal maturation analysis has been carried out throughVitrinite Reflectance (R
o
, %), Geothermal effect and Burial history curves are used.
i) Vitrinite Reflectance (R
o
, %)
Thermal evolution of source rocks changes many physical and chemical properties of the organic matter, so thechanges in these properties are used as indicators for maturity. The most common parameter used, as a standardagainst which all other parameters are calibrated, is the vitrinite reflectance. For most kerogens the onset of oil-generation is taken to be near 0.6% R
o
. Peak generation and migration is about 0.9% R
o
and the end of liquid-hydrocarbon generation is thought to be about 1.35% R
o
, as shown in the following (
Table 2
):
R
o
% Stages of Maturation Types of Hydrocarbons0.40.5 Immature stage Condensate from resinite0.6 Early mature stage
 
0.650.7

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