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NS20120100008_34992202

NS20120100008_34992202

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01/16/2013

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Vol.4, No.1, 47-56 (2012)
 
Natural Science
 
doi:10.4236/ns.2012.41008
Electromagnetic nature of the nuclear forces and atoroid model of nucleons in atomic nuclei
Kiril Kolikov
*
, Dragiya Ivanov, Georgi Krastev
Plovdiv University “P. Hilendarski”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria;
*
Corresponding Author:kolikov@uni-plovdiv.bgReceived 23 July 2011; revised 15 October 2011; accepted 14 November 2011
ABSTRACT
 
In this paper we consider nucleons as tori, ro-tating with a constant angular velocity aroundthe straight line passing through their masscentre (geometric centre) and perpendicular totheir plane of rotation. We theoretically deter-mine the corresponding potential energy andthe force of interaction between pairs of nucle-ons, using our precise analytical formulas forthe electrostatic interaction between two sph-eres with arbitrary radii and charges, which wederive using experimentally obtained results forthe radii and the masses of the nucleons. Fromthe values for binding energy found through ourmethod, it follows that nuclear forces are elec-tromagnetic in nature. In terms of magnitude ofthe force of interaction between proton andneutron, we obtain that Coulomb's forces areshort-range. Our toroid model explains the ex-perimental results not only for binding energy,but also for the radius, magnetic moment andthe spin of the nuclei of atoms.Keywords:
 
Strong Interaction; Nucleon; BindingPotential Energy; Electromagnetic Interaction
 
1. INTRODUCTION
Modern physics assumes that exist four types of fun-damental interactions: strong (nuclear), electromagnetic,weak (leptonic) and gravitational.The strong interaction is believed not to be electro-magnetic by nature, a number of reasons have being brought to bear. But despite of the already century-longhistory of studying the nuclear interaction and atomicnuclei, even today theoretical nuclear physics has noknowledge about the exact law of interaction betweennucleons. At present, the study of the proton and neutronstructure and how they interact is one of the most ac-tively developing areas of nuclear physics. However, it is based mainly on the accumulation and the classificationof experimental data.A complete theory of the nucleus has not yet been cre-ated, which could explain its structure and all its proper-ties as well as the available experimental data concerningits behaviour [1-4]. The main difficulty here is insuffi-cient knowledge of the forces of interaction between thenucleons, as well as of their structure.In this article we find out that
strong interactions areelectromagnetic by nature
. Our results are in agreementwith the idea of “The Great Unification” of the four types of interactions known. In this aspect, electromag-netic and weak interactions have already been unified inthe so-called “electroweak” interactions by A. Salam [5],S. Weinberg [6], and S. Glashow [7] in 1967-1968.From the perspective of contemporary ideas both the proton and neutron have an internal electric structure.The proton has an electric charge. The neutron, althoughit can be assumed electrically neutral,
i.e.
with a commoncharge
0
n
, also has an internal electric structure, itsnegative charge, as opposed to the positive one is dis-tributed primarily at its surface [8,9].In the so far created numerous nuclear models it is as-sumed that Coulomb’s interaction between nucleons hasa very small contribution to the binding energy of thenuclei. But, as also noted by R. Feynman, at distancesless than
15
10
 
m either Coulomb’s law does not apply,or electrons and protons are not point charges [10].
We consider nucleons as spatial-dimensional objects-tori
,
in which their electric charge can be redistributed.
 (This is not in contradiction with the quark model). Thenwe can determine the electrostatic interaction betweenthem.As we know, there are no direct experimental confir-mations for the existence of charge independence of nu-clear forces. For this we infer from indirect considera-tions, for example, by comparing the binding energy of mirror nuclei. According to our proposed theory it fol-lows that
there is no charge independence
. It is also con-firmed by the fact that there are no atomic nuclei, con-sisting only of protons (except protium) or only of neu-trons. Between proton and proton (with positive charges),and between neutron and neutron (with negative charges
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/ns/ 
 
 
K. Kolikov
et al.
/ Natural Science 4 (2012) 47-56
 
48
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/ns/ 
 
on their surfaces), there are no bound states, becausefrom the electromagnetic point of view identical nucle-ons repel each other.In [11] by the method of inverse images we solve ana-lytically the problem of electrostatic interactions betweentwo charged conductive spheres with arbitrary electriccharges and arbitrary radii
1
and
2
. As a result, wederive in the most common aspect exact analytical for-mulas for the magnitude of the force and the potentialenergy of interaction between them. We also determinethe potential in an arbitrary
 
 point
 
of the electromagneticfield created by two spheres. From the obtained by usformulas follows Coulomb’s law when
12
,
i.e.
 for point charges. These results can also be applied withapproximation to aspherical bodies having a single center of symmetry, modeling them as spheres having equiva-lent surface areas [11].
r
0
r
With the obtained by us general formulas, for the firsttime it could be found the interaction between twocharged spheres, which are situated at very short distance between them. We use these results for finding out theelectrostatic interaction between nucleons. Experimen-tally found radii of the nucleons are on the order of m [12,13]. That is why we consider the systems of  proton-neutron, proton-proton and proton-neutron-pro-ton, being at a distance less than m from eachother. We prove that in terms of size of the force of in-teraction, Coulomb’s forces, in the pairs proton-neutron,are short-acting. Thus we find that
the potential bindingenergy in the atomic nuclei has electromagnetic nature
!We find out also the force of interaction between nucle-ons-a result obtained for the first time in nuclear physics.We also explain other basic experimental data-
stability
,
 radius
,
magnetic moment and spin
, of the nuclei of at-oms.
15
10
15
10
In [14] we confirm experimentally established stability, binding energy, magnetic moment and spin of the nucleiof deuterium, tritium, helium 3 and helium 4. In general,we consider that all experimental data on the nuclei of atoms can be interpreted, through the constructed by us
Toroid model of nucleons
by electromagnetic point of view
.
 
2. METHOD FOR FINDING OUTELECTROSTATIC INTERACTIONBETWEEN TWO CHARGEDCONDUCTIVE SPHERES
By the method presented by us in [11], we will repre-sent a part, necessary for accomplishment the further calculations.Let
1
and
2
be two electrified (isolated) conduc-tive spheres, with charges
1
,
2
and radii
1
,
2
 respectively. Let’s denote with the distance betweentheir centres , in an inertial system
SS
1
OQQr RO
2
 J 
(
Figure 1
).Since charges
1
and
2
are evenly distributed on thesurfaces of 
1
and
2
, it is generally assumed that be-fore the interaction between the spheres they are concen-trated in centres and respectively.
QOQOSS
12
As a result of the electrostatic interaction betweenand , on their surfaces appear induced chargesand , which are interrelated. Formally, we can as-sume that these charges are located on line segment. On the surfaces of and are obtained uni-formly distributed charges
1
S
1
Q
2
S
2
Q
21
OO
1
S
2
S
1
Q
and
2
Q
, we can assumethat they are concentrated in their centres
2
Q
and .
2
O
From the law for preservation of electric charge theequations
111
QQ
=
Q
and
22
=
QQQ
2
are in power,i.e.
11
Q
1
=
QQ
and
22
=
QQQ
2
. (1)By the method of image charges, we determine thecharges
1
,
2
and hence the charges
Q
Q
1
Q
,
2
Q
. Let asa consequence of 
1
be generated image charges
1,
Q
 j
Q
 
(1,2
 j
,3,...).
Because each charge
1,
 j
Q
generates
1,1
 j
Q
, the charges with an odd index
1,21
m
Q
 
(1,
m
2,3,...)
are located in the sphere
2
, andcharges with an even index
1,2
m
Q
 —in the sphere .Similarly are determined the image charges
S
1
S
2,
 j
Q
 
(1,2
 j
,3,...)
, arising as a consequence from charge .The charges with an odd index
2,21
m
 
2
Q
3,...)
Q
(
m
1,2,
 are located in the sphere
1
, and charges with an evenindex —in the sphere .
S
2,2
m
2
Let’s denote
QS
11
rR
 
and
22
rR
 
. We introducefor 
1,2
 j
,3,
 j
the following denotations:
11111111
221,1210222,1210221,12102,
,
ks
11,,
s jkss jkss j j
 jsjks As jsjks As jks Bs jks Bs
ksksks j j
ksks jsks jsks
   
  
221210
.
kss
 
  
ks
 j
(2)If 
..
,
ij
are the distances of im-age-charges
,
ij
, respectively to the centers of thespheres , in [11] we obtain that:
1,
Q
2;
 j
1,
di
i
O
2,3,.
1,112,12,1
,
1,1221,21,211,1,2,1222,22,222,
,.
mmmmmmmmmmmm
 ABdR BA ABdR BA
  
11
21
dRdR
,
(3)We find also that:
 
K. Kolikov
et al.
/ Natural Science 4 (2012) 47-56
 
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
http://www.scirp.org/journal/ns/ 49
 
Figure 1.
Electrostatic interaction between two charged conductive spheres
S
1
and
S
2
.
112121,2111,211,11,112122,212,222,12,
=, ==, =
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
QQQ BAQQQ BA
  
2
,.
m
QQ
(4)Let denote the charges from Formulas (4) and (6),which are located in the sphere
1
with
S
 j
Q
, and thesewhich are located in the sphere with
2
S
 j
Q
 
(0,1,2,)
 j
Openly accessible at 
Lets
121212=1=11,2,1121212=1=11,12,1
=, =,=, =
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
 X AAY BB
  
1
.
m
 
(5)where at
0
1
i
 
0
i
 
Q
.
(1,2)
i
Q
Since charges
1
and
2
are sums of all imagecharges, located respectively in the spheres and ,then
1
S
2
S
11,22,211
mmm
QQQ
21,21211
mmmm
QQQ
1
m
2
and.
,
From here and from (5) and (6) it follows that
11212
and
QQXQ
2112
QQYQ
 
2
. Then, sub-stituting these equations in (1), we get:
1222112121112121
(1)=(1)(1)(1)=(1)(1)
QXQQ
22
,.
 XXYQXQQ XXY
(6)
.
Thus
1,010
QQQ
;
2,020
QQQ
,and for 1,
m
2,3,
,
21
mm
,
1,22
mm
2,
21
QQ
QQ
;
1,2121
mm
QQ
,
2,22
mm
QQ
(
Figure 1
). Their corre-sponding distances to the centers of the spheres, wherethey are situated we denote with
 j
and
 j
 
(0,1,2,...)
 j
, where
00
d
0
.If 
 jj
dR
 
, and
 jj
dR
 
, then, according toCoulomb's law, for the magnitude
of the projectionof the force of interaction on , acting on spheresand , we obtain
1
OO
21
S
2
S
22000
14
π
1
 j j j
QQ R
  
. (7)The potential energy of interaction between the twospheres and , according to [15], is
1
S
2
S
000
14
π
1
 j j j
QQ R
 
. (8)Let us point out that in (7) and (8) we do not take intoconsideration the interactions between the charges insidethe spheres
1
and
2
as actually the interaction isouter-between the charges on the surface of with thecharges on the surface of .
SS
1
S
2
Let
S M 
be an arbitrary point in the electric field cre-ated by charges
 j
Q
and
 j
Q
. If 
(0,1,2,
 j
)
 M 
isat distances
 j
a
and
 j
b
 
from charges
 j
Q
and
 j
Q
 

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