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Orals Nav n WK

# Orals Nav n WK

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A collection of orals questions and answers on navigational watchkeeping for the help of students appearing for their MMD viva
A collection of orals questions and answers on navigational watchkeeping for the help of students appearing for their MMD viva

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10/09/2012

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Q.
Why are GPS satellites positioned in orbits 20,200 km above earth’s surface?
A.
This height of orbits falls within range of orbit heights classified as medium earth orbits. Thisheight is chosen for GPS satellites for following reasons:1.

Footprint of satellites is large enough to provide global coverage,2.

Because of larger footprints of satellites, the total number of satellites is lesser than would beneeded if satellites were to orbit at lower heights,3.

This height is low enough for earth based transmitters/receivers to have modest sized antennasand use lower transmission powers for the system to be used effectively.
Q.
What is the difference between gross tonnage and net tonnage?
A.
Tonnage in general refers to capacity or size of a ship.Gross tonnage is a function of volume of enclosed spaces of a ship. It is indic

ative of ship’s size.Net tonnage refers to volume of cargo carrying spaces. It is indicative of vessel’s earning potential.The NT cannot be less than 30% of the GT of a ship. Net tonnage is used for ship’s dues.Both GT and NT are determined by measuring ship’s volume and then applying a mathematicalformula. Both GT and NT are dimensionless numbers and are shown in ship’s InternationalTonnage Certificate. They do not have any physical units and should not be confused with unit of mass, namely ton.
Q.
What do you understand by GRT and NRT?
A.
GRT stands for Gross Register Tonnage and NRT means NET Register Tonnage. Both theseterms are now obsolete and have been replaced respectively with GT and NT under InternationalConvention on Tonnage Measurements of Ships.However, students may note the definitions of GRT and NRT for their reference:
Gross Register Tonnage

(GRT)
meant a measure of the total internal capacity of the ship. Itconsisted of: under-deck volume excluding double-bottoms, volume of tween deck spaces, volumeof superstructures, volume of deck-houses etc. Spaces like navigational areas, galleys, stairways,light and air spaces were exempted. The total volume thus calculated in cubic feet was divided by100 (1 gross ton = 100 cubic feet). This was the Gross Tonnage entered in the ship's Register.
Net Register Tonnage

(NRT)

meant a measure of the available space for the carriage of cargoand passengers. This was obtained from GRT after making some deductions. These deductionsfrom GRT included: Master and crew accommodation, safety and storage spaces, water ballasttanks, allowance for propelling machinery. Again the resulting volume in cubic feet was dividedby 100 (1 net ton = 100 cubic feet). This was the Net Tonnage entered in the Register.
Q.
Which radar should be used for long range scanning?
A.
10 cm or S-band radar is better for long range scanning.
Q.
Which radar should be used in heavy rain?

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A. 10
cm or S-band radar should be definitely on and used in rain, because 10 cm radar gives lessrain clutter. However, in situations like this, it is preferable to keep both radars on and use theadvantage of 10 cm radar accordingly.
Q.
A.
The performance of radar can be ascertained with the help of performance monitor.
Q.
What is parallel indexing and what is its principle?
A.
Parallel indexing is a technique of executing and monitoring ship’s motion a

long a pre-determined charted track. While keeping the radar screen under observation it provides instantlyship’s position with respect to the charted track. It fills the gap between two consecutive plottedpositions and allows for the off-track deviation to be treated well in time. Though the technique istermed as continuous fixing, it does not absolve OOW of duties of fixing vessel’s position atregular intervals.Parallel indexing works on the principle of relative motion, in which the echo of a ground-based(fixed) target moves across radar display at a speed and in direction which is exact reciprocal of ship’s motion over ground. The target chosen should be isolated, radar-conspicuous and positivelyidentified.
Q.
Which mode of radar motion should be used for parallel indexing?
A.
Both relative motion (RM) and true motion (TM) are equally suitable for parallel indexing.
Q.
Radars are interfaced with speed logs as well as GPS. GPS gives SOG, while log is intended toprovide STW. How will you decide which speed to use and when?
A.
I will use STW for applying ROR i.e. for taking decisions on collision avoidance. This means tosay that my radar will be switched to STW mode, when at sea.But, SOG also has its own functions. It is very useful, because it shows the CMG vector as well onradar screen. So I can use SOG mode when navigating in restricted waters dotted with shoals,islets, rocks etc. and also while negotiating turns in proximity of hazards.
Q.
There is some interface trouble between your radar and speed log and you are unable to get theSTW input on radar. What will you do?
A.
I will enter the STW manually by using the manual option on radar and navigate accordingly.
Q.
What do you understand by EPA and ATA?
A.
Both EPA and ATA are radar plotting aids. EPA stands for electronic plotting aid and ATAstands for automatic tracking aid.
Q.
How are they different from each other?
A.
In EPA each target needs to be plotted manually and EPA gives target data for each manualplot. It is the simplest form of advancement in automation, in which the triangle OAW is solvedelectronically. EPA is required to be fitted on all ships of 300 GT and upwards and passenger shipsirrespective of size.

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In ATA target is acquired manually and plotting is automatic. This is the next step ahead wheretarget once acquired manually is tracked automatically. All ships of 500 GT and above are requiredto be fitted with ATA.
Q.
What are the minimum parameters of a radar plot?
A.
The seven minimum parameters are:Target identity, bearing, distance, CPA, TCPA, target course and target speed.
Q.
Is there any other type of plotting aid?
A.
Yes. It is known as automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA) and it is required to fitte

d on all shipsof 10,000 GT and above.
Q.
As a cadet you have sailed on ships upwards of 10,000 GT. You are about to join as 3
rd
mate aship whose GT is less than 10,000 and it is not fitted with ARPA. What does it mean to you as anOOW?
A.
It means that the ship will be fitted with ATA. I will be aware of the limitations of ATA ascompared to ARPA. ATA does not provide functions like automatic acquisition and plotting of atleast 20 targets, trial maneuver etc. available on any ARPA. I will make myself fully familiar withthese limitations and operational procedures by referring to the operator’s manual and carry outnavigational duties accordingly.
Q.
What are the two additional navigational equipments required to be fitted on ships of 50,000GT and upwards?
A.
They are:1.

Rate of turn indicator (ROTI) to determine and indicate the rate of turn for facilitating theexecution of curved segments of planned passage.2.

Speed and distance measuring equipment to determine and indicate speed of ship over ground(SOG) in the forward and athwartships direction. This requirement is usually met by fittingDoppler speed log.
Q.
What do you understand by wind rose?
A.
Wind rose is graphical depiction of wind data as regard to direction and force of wind likely tobe encountered in an area, in a particular period or month. With the help of the wind rose, it can beknown at a glance the likelihood of encountering wind from a particular direction at a given force.Wind roses are shown in red on routeing charts, in the form of a circle having arrows pointingradially towards centre. The arrows fly with the wind and this fact provides the direction. Thelength of the arrow indicates the percentage frequency of occurrence on the scale provided on thechart (2inches equal 100%). The thickness of the arrow indicates the wind force. The arrows crossthe circle by an amount which equals 5% frequency and provides a quick estimation.The circle also encloses three figures placed one above the other. The top figure represents the totalnumber of observations. Middle figure represents the %age frequency of variable windsencountered. And, the bottom figure is indicative of %age frequency of calms.