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George R. Blumenthal et al- Formation of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure with Cold Dark Matter

George R. Blumenthal et al- Formation of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure with Cold Dark Matter

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Published by: Tuoma2 on Jan 28, 2012
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SLAC - PUB - 3307March 1984TFORMATION OF GALAXIES AND LARGE SCALESTRUCTURE WITH COLD DARK MATTER’
GEORGE
R.
BLUMENTHAL AND
S. M.
FABERLick Obaeruatory, Board of Studiea in Aatronomy and AstrophysicsUniversity of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064JOEL
R.
PRIMACKStanjord Linear Accelerator CenterStanford University, Stanford, California 9&!?05
and--
Santa Cruz Institute oj Particle Physic8University of California, Santa Cruz, Cal(lornia 95064 t
and
MARTIN
J.
REES
Institute
of Theoretical
Physics
University of California, Santa Barbara, Cali/arnia 99106
and
Znatitute of AstronomyMadingley Road, Cambridge CB9 OHA, England 1
Submitted to Nature
*
This work was supported by the Department of Energy under
Contract Number DE
ACO3-76SFOO515nd in part by National ScienceFoundation grants AST-82-11551and PHY-81-15541.t Permanentaddress.
 
ABSTRACTThe dark matter that appears to be gravitationally dominant on all scaleslarger than galactic cores may consist of axions, stable photinos, or other colli-sionless particles whose velocity dispersion in the early universe is so small that--fluctuations of galactic size or larger are not damp~ed y free streaming. An at-tractive feature of this cold dark matter hypothesis is its considerable predictivepower: the post-recombination fluctuation spectrum is calculable, and it in turngoverns the formation of galaxies and clusters. Good agreement with the data isobtained for a Zeldovich (j&l2 a: k;) spectrum of primordial fluctuations.2
 
1. Introduction
Why are there galaxies, and why do they have the sizes and shapes we ob-serve? Why are galaxies clustered hierarchically in clusters and superclusters,separated by enormous voids in which bright galaxies are almost entirely absent?And what is the nature of the invisible mass, or dark matter,
that
we detectgravitationally roundabout galaxies and clusters but cannot see directly in anywavelength of electromagnetic radiation? Of the great mysteries of modern cos-mology, these three may now be among the ripest for solution.- .Since there is evidence that the amount of dark matter in the universe exceedsthat of the visible matter by at least an order of magnitude,’ the third questionmay hold the key to the first two. This paper considers the hypothesis that-the dark matter is
eold,2-g
that is, that its velocity dispersion is cosmologicallynegligible in the early universe.Most modern theories of the origin of structure in the universe assume thatthe extreme inhomogeneity of the present universe grew gravitationally frominitially very small density fluctuations.7-8 At early times the universe is gravi-tationally dominated by photons and other relativistic particles, but as the tem-perature drops the avera.gekinetic energy per particle decreases. One hypothesisextensively explored of late is that the dark matter (hereafter DM) consists ofneutrinos of mass about 30 eV.g-1o Since these particles would still be relativis-
-.
tic when galaxy-size masses come within the horizon, they would freely streamaway, smoothing out small scale fluctuations. We refer to such particles as
hot
DM. The mass of the neutrinos inside the horizon when they first become non-relativistic is roughly
1015hfa,
about the mass of a supercluster. This is themass of the first structures to collapse gravitationally in a neutrino-dominated
3

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