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Transformer Oil

Transformer Oil

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Published by inetbrosingcentre

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Published by: inetbrosingcentre on Jan 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/19/2014

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 COOLING OF TRANSFORMERSINTRODUCTION
The load that a transformer carries without heat damage can be increased by usingan adequate cooling system. This is due to the fact that a transformer's loadingcapacity is partly decided by its ability to dissipate heat. If the winding hot spottemperature reaches critical levels, the excess heat can cause the transformer to failprematurely by accelerating the aging process of the transformer's insulation. Acooling system increases the load capacity of a transformer by improving its ability todissipate the heat generated by electric current. In other words, good coolingsystems allow a transformer to carry more of a load than it otherwise could withoutreaching critical hot spot temperatures.One of the more common types of transformer cooling equipment is auxiliary fans.These can be used to keep the radiator tubes cool, thereby increasing thetransformer's ratings. Fans should not be used constantly, but rather only whentemperatures are such that extra cooling is needed. Automatic controls can be set upso that fans are turned on when the transformer's oil or winding temperature growstoo high.
Maintenance of Cooling Systems
Dry-Type Transformers:For dry-type transformers, the area in which thetransformer is to be installed should have proper ventilation. This ventilation
 
should be checked prior to installation to make sure it is adequate. Additionally, the transformer's radiator vents should be kept clear of obstructions that could impede heat dissipation.Forced Air: If the transformer's temperature is being kept at acceptablelevels by forced air from a fan, the fan's motors should be checkedperiodically to make sure they are properly lubricated and operate well. Thethermostat that ensures the motors are activated within the presettemperature ranges should be tested as well.
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Water cooled systems: Systems that are cooled by water should be testedperiodically to make sure they operate properly and do not leak. Leaks can bechecked by raising the pressure within the cooling system, which can be donein various ways. If the cooling coils can be removed from the transformer,internal pressure can be applied by adding water. Otherwise, pressure checkscan also be made using air or coolant oil, if the coils need to be checkedwithin the transformer itself.If the cooling coils are taken out of the transformer, the water cooling systemas a whole can be tested. Here, the coils are filled up with water until thepressure reaches 80 to 100 psi, and left under that pressure for at least anhour. Any drop in pressure could be a sign of a leak. The other equipmentlinked to a water-cooled system can be tested at the same time, such as thealarm system, water pump and pressure gauges. Also, the water sourceshould be tested to make sure it has sufficient flow and pressure.
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Liquid coolants: When oil coolants are prepared they are dehydrated, andprocessed to be free of acids, alkalis, and sulfur. They should also have a lowviscosity if they are to circulate easily. If a transformer is cooled by oil, thedielectric strength of the oil should always be tested before the transformer isput into service.
Types of Cooling Systems
 For oil immersed transformers, the options for cooling systems are as follows:

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