THE JOURNAL OF THE TIBET SOCIETYGlan-chung Dar-ma-tshul-khrims.
Whoever this person
have been,Milarepa was soon to leave him for much more dangerous studies.
The story of Milarepa's involvement with black magic
well known. Inshort, Milarepa's immediate family was deprived of its inheritance and mistreated
his aunt and uncle. His mother persuaded him to seek vengeancethrough the black arts. So, Milarepa left his home in Lower Gung-thang(near the northern border of central Nepal) for the faraway valley ofYarlung and a hamlet called Skyor-po, where he met a teacher
theGnyags clan named G.yung-ston Khro-rgyal.
Khro-rgyal wasn't at alleager to teach real coercive magic
he was impressed
Milarepa's devotion. Milarepa finally said to him, ''I'm not justa cute kid
learning magic for a pastime.
homewithout learning magic, my aging mother will kill herself!" After verifyingMilarepa's story, Khro-rgyal said, "I have a magical method and coercivespell called the
Red and Black Faced Za (Gza'-gdong-dmar-nag).
However,I gave it to Doctor (Lha-rje) Snubs-chung
Phu-Iung in Snubs. In return,
gave me a recipe for hailmaking. We have an agreement that if anyonecomes to me for coercive magic, I am to refer them to
Later,Milarepa was to return to Khro-rgyal;
the second magic teacher
shows the greatest potential for historical investigation.
beginwith, I will restrict myself to what can be learned about him in the Milarepacorpus, the
of Padma Dkar-po.Available biographies
Milarepa give different forms for the name
magic teacher. In the
called Doctor Hilt;n-chung.
Padma Dkar-po he is called Doctor Ye-shes-gzungs
called Doctor Gnubs-chung,14
said to beGnubs Khu-Iung-pa
even Gnubs Khu-Iung-pa Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho.
Heis a well known figure in Nyingma history. In order to reach a more positive identification of this teacher, however,
will be necessary to resort toa study of lineages. Gnubs Khu-Iung-pa belonged to an important lineagefor the oral tradition
the Nyingma which transmitted the
and other teachings. The following reconstruction ofinformation supplied
Padma Dkar-po (p.
will be important for this discussion, since it supplies a roughchronology and many of the persons involved will reappear later on.
While Padma Dkar-po and the
the lineages passingthrough the two sons of Gnubs Khu-Iung-pa,
agree that the magicteacher was a spiritual (and, in other sources, physical) descendent of
Khu-Iung-pa. [See Figure
How can these conflicting reports
the identity of the magic teacher bereconciled7
forming the hypothesis that the Doctor Gnubs-chung
the biographies was someone other
Gnubs Khu-Iung-pa. First of all,most members
transmission are occasionally given the