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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1. Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Signatures and Detection
What signatures show the presence of nuclear weapons and SNM?
Opacity to photons
Figure 1. Gamma-Ray Spectra: 90% Uranium-235 vs. Background
Figure 2. Gamma-Ray Spectra: Weapons-Grade Plutonium vs. Background
How Does Detection Work?
How are signatures gathered, processed, and used?
Principles of detection
Figure 4. Gamma-Ray Spectra of Plutonium-239
Means of detection
Evasion of detection technologies
Current Detection Technologies
Radiation “pagers”
Radiation portal monitors
Radioactive isotope identification devices
Radiographic imaging systems
Chapter 2. Advanced Technologies
Nanocomposite Scintillators16
The problem
Technology description
Potential advantages
Status, schedule, and funding
Risks and concerns
Potential gains by increased funding
Potential synergisms and related applications
GADRAS: A Gamma-Ray Spectrum Analysis Application Using Multiple Algorithms22
Figure 6. How GADRAS Identifies Special Nuclear Material
Computer Modeling to Evaluate Detection Capability34
Figure 7. A Notional Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve
Figure 8. Three Notional ROC Curves
L-3 CAARS: A Low-Risk Dual-Energy Radiography System41
Figure 9. Dual-Energy Radiography
Figure 10. L-3 CAARS Schematic Drawings
Potential benefits
Figure 11. SAIC CAARS Prototype
Figure 12. Dual-Energy Radiography with False Colors Assigned
AS&E CAARS: Using Backscattered X-Rays to Detect Dense Material78
Figure 13. EZ-3DTM Differentiates Between Elements by Atomic Number (Z)
Figure 14. Schematic Diagram of EZ-3D Technique
Muon Tomography90
Figure 16. Muon Tomography Resolution Increases with Scan Time
Figure 17. Muon Tomography Creates Three-Dimensional Images
Potential synergisms and other applications
Two problems
Figure 18. Schematic Diagram of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence System
Detecting SNM at a Distance147
Chapter 3. Observations
Observations on Progress in Detection Technology
Observations on Technical Progress and Congress
Observations on Technical Progress and Terrorism
Appendix. The Physics of Nuclear Detection171
What Is to Be Detected?
Fissile material
Shielding and background radiation
Signatures of Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium, and Nuclear Weapons
Atomic number and density
Presence of gamma rays beyond background levels
Presence of neutrons beyond background levels
Gamma ray spectra
Time pattern of neutrons and gamma rays
How detectors work
Detecting gamma rays
Detecting neutrons
Detecting absorption or scattering of high-energy photons
Evasion of Detection Technologies
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CRS Report - Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials- Science, Technologies, Observations

CRS Report - Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials- Science, Technologies, Observations

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Published by UncleStumpy

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Published by: UncleStumpy on Jan 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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