Simple Methods for the Treatment of Drinking Water
1. Treatment of Drinking Water an Introduction to the Subject1.1 Cycles
Human beings intercept the natural water cycle in order to take water for their purposes,and after using the water, they return it to the cycle. During this usage, the water becomes polluted. Pollution can also occur in other ways and at other stages of the water cycle.Through various naturally occurring cleansing processes, the quality of the water isimproved as it makes its way through the cycle. It depends, however, on the type andquantity of the contamination that entered the hydrologic cycle, whether the water cancleanse itself.Some of the main factors that contribute to the ever-increasing amounts of non-degradable domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes are: overpopulation, naturalcatastrophies and droughts, increasing industrialization and the utilization of chemicals inagriculture. These contaminants interfere with the balance of the hydrologic cycle anddisturb the complex processes of the natural breakdown of pollutants by entering thatcycle in the following ways directly, via the disposal of sewage, by percolating throughthe ground, by aerosol dispersion due to precipitation or evaporation, or via plants. Theconsequence of this is that most of the fresh water available to humans is contaminatedand moreso, the nearer the available water source is to the point of contamination.Infection and toxicity in men and animals can result from the intake of contaminatedwater and even from external contact. They, in turn, discharge the orally ingested pathogens (disease causing agents) which then wind up in the water cycle, reproduce,reinfect, etc.