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Brain Computer Interface for Cursor Movement Control by Fuzzy Logic

Brain Computer Interface for Cursor Movement Control by Fuzzy Logic

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Published by Sachin Sharma

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Published by: Sachin Sharma on Jan 29, 2012
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International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Networking, Intelligence and Computing Technologies 2-3 September 2011KIET, Ghaziabad
Irshad Ahmad Ansari
, Sachin Sharma
, Gaurav Kumar
Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering,Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India 
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) involves thecommunication between the user and the system via brainsignals. The electroencephalography (EEG) havedeveloped into one of the most important and widely usedquantitative diagnostic tools in analysis of brain signalsand patterns. The main goal of our study is to help peoplewith sever motor disabilities (i.e., Spinal cord injuries) andprovide them a new way of communication and controloptions by which they can move the cursor in twodimensions. In this paper, we proposed a novelarchitecture that can acquire bio signals in real-time andprocess it for controlling of cursor movement. it willdetect noisy signal in the analysis and it removecompletely. The aim of this paper is to give an idea ofdeveloping an application based Brain Computer Interface(BCI) using Fuzzy Logic.
Keywords: Brain Computer interface, fuzzy logic, EEG,brain signal
 An electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCI providea feasible and non-invasive way for the communicationbetween the human brain and the computer [1]
[7].People with severe injuries (i.e., spinal cord injuries)and motor disabilities face daily challenges in living theirlives as normal people. One of these difficulties facingdisabled people is using the computer.Such people can control the devices by controllingcertain waves from their EEG-ElectroencephalogramE.g. movement of a mechanical arm, Control ofComputer Cursor or control a wheel chair. Previousresearches done on BCI used many different methods tosearch the possibility of connecting a patient's brain witha computer system successfully and so many differentmethods were studied and tested.With the advancement of sensor technology andinformation technology it become easy to design lowpower required sensors and make the cost of productioncheaper. This help in physiological signal monitoringarea very effectively. A physiological signal monitoringsystem will be extremely useful in many areas if they areportable and monitoring target physiological signals andanalysing them in real time.Lot of algorithms was proposed for the developmentof brain-computer interface for improved performance.Here to improve such a interface noise removal systemor suitable processing technique is needed. Some ofthese researches used linear methods, non-linearmethods in order to classify the brain signals extractedand others used genetic algorithm or classicalclassification algorithms to classify the signals comingout of the brain. There are some studies regarding theportable BCI devices [8]
[10]. Our previous studiesdiscovered that some features in human EEG signalsare highly related to drowsiness level [11], [12], and theycan be used for estimating driver drowsiness.In this research, the (fuzzy inference system)algorithm was used in order to classify the signals whereit showed a better performance. Real time analysis ofEEG was used in this study for the disable people inorder to control the Cursor movement by extracting thefeature from the data and classify them in proper way.The better the classification is, the better the applicationof any BCI system will be.
 This dataset was recorded from a normal subject.The subject sat in a normal chair, relaxed arms restingon the table. The experiment consisted of 4 sessions of10 minutes each. All sessions were conducted on thesame day with some minutes break in between.
Data Acquisition 
Data used in this experiment consisted of threechannels of EEG placed on Cz, C3 and C4 (international10-20 electrode system). We developed a BCI whichuses
μ (8
12Hz) and central β (18
-25Hz) EEG rhythmsrecorded over the motor cortex. The data is recordedfrom each subject in a timed experimental recordingprocedure where the subject is instructed to imagine
International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Networking, Intelligence and Computing Technologies 2-3 September 2011KIET, Ghaziabad
moving the left and right hand and foot in accordance toa directional cue displayed on a computer monitor. Ineach recording session a number of EEG patterns
Fig. 1. Basic model of BCI system
relating to the imagined right or left arm and footmovement are produced by a subject, over a number oftrials. All signals are sampled at 128Hz and filteredbetween 0.5 and 30Hz. The subject can select anymovement which is displayed on the computer in orderto control the movement of cursor.
Architecture and training Procedure 
An experiment paradigm was designed for the studyand the protocol was explained to each participantbefore the experiment. In this, the subject was asked tocomfortably lie down in a relaxed position with eyesclosed. After assuring the normal relaxed state bychecking the status of alpha waves, the EEG wasrecorded, This was used as the baseline reference forfurther analysis of mental task. The subject was askedto per-form a mental task on presentation of an displaycue. Data collected from five subjects performing fourmental tasks were analysed. The following mental taskswere used.
Fig. 2. Architecture of BCI system
Left hand movement imagination: The subject wasasked to imagine the movement of left hand with openeye.Right hand movement imagination: The subject wasasked to imagine the movement of left hand with openeye.Left foot movement imagination: The subject wasasked to imagine the movement of Left foot with openeye.
Fig. 1. Example of EEG wave
Right foot movement imagination: The subject wasasked to imagine the movement of Right foot with openeye. EEG signals were recorded during this period.
Feature Extraction 
In this work a time-frequency (t-f) approach to EEGfeature extraction has been adopted. It rests on the factthat the spectral content of the EEG recorded frombipolar channels over Cz, C3 and C4 locations when asubject performs imagination of hand and footmovements displays relevant changes around
μ (8
(18-25Hz) ranges. When the sensorimotor area ofthe brain is activated as a result of informationprocessing (i.e. during imagination of hand movement),
the amplitude of μ and central β
oscillations decreases.This phenomenon is referred to as event-relateddesynchronization (ERD). The opposite process ofamplitude enhancement of the EEG recorded fromcortical areas that are not specifically involved in a givenmode of activity is called event related synchronization(ERS) [6]. The frequency bands of ERS and ERD varyfrom subject to subject. The experiments have shownthat for the subjects examined, there was ERD of the
rhythm on the contra lateral side (opposite side toimagined hand movement) and a slight ERS in thecentral
rhythm on the ipsilateral hemisphere (the sameside as the imagined hand movement). Moreover, themost reactive frequency bands from which to extractfeatures for the given subjects have been found. [13]Further studies have proven that utilization of otherfrequency components does not enhance discriminativeproperties of the proposed EEG representation.The short time Fourier transform (STFT) is applied toobtain the t-f representation of the EEGs analysed in this
International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Networking, Intelligence and Computing Technologies 2-3 September 2011KIET, Ghaziabad
work. The segment of each EEG trial between 3s and 8s(5s of an event-related signal which corresponds to 640samples) is divided into Gaussian windows dependingon the settings of two parameters: window length, length
and the amount of overlap, lap.The EEG features are calculated separately for eachtime segment. The first stage amounts to time averagingof spectral content in the specified frequency bands.Next, the square norm of these mean values iscalculated (i.e. the square root of the sum of thecomponents squared), which serves as a sub-element
of the feature vector R, where
is an index of arecording channel (i.e. either Cz, C3 or C4). The index
implies that a complete feature vector consists ofsegments of the normalized spectral EEG content foreach signal recorded:
R = (R1,.., R2*Nwin )
(1)The windowing technique allows for effective controlover the architecture of the feature space. Firstly, thenumber of windows dictates its dimension. Secondly, thewindow length along with the amount of overlapdetermines the character of information about the t-fevolution of the relevant EEG components exploited.
Among available FISs [15], [16],
we chose the Chiu’s
FIS (CFIS) [14]. Indeed, CFIS is robust to noise, whichis fundamental when dealing with such noisy data asEEG signals. Moreover, according to Chiu, the CFIS isgenerally more efficient than neural networks. Finally, itis a clustering-based FIS, making it suitable for dealingwith small training sets [1
5]. With the CFIS, fuzzy “if 
then” rules can be automatically extracted
 from data in three successive steps.1. Clustering of training data. Aclustering algorithm
known as “substractive
clustering” [
14] is applied to thetraining data of each class separately. This algorithmenables to find automatically the number of clusters andtheir positions.
Generation of the fuzzy rules.
A fuzzy “if 
then” rule is
generated for each cluster found previously. For acluster j, belonging to class Cli, the generated fuzzy ruleis: if X1 is Aj1 and ; . . . ; and XN is AjN then class is Cliwhere N is the dimensionality of the data, Xk is the kthelement of a feature vector X and Ajk is a Gaussianfuzzy membership functionTo increase accuracy, the
membership functions can be “two
sided” Gaussians
with a plateau and a different standard deviation oneach side [14].3.
Fuzzy rule optimization.
Each membership functionAjk is tuned according to gradient descent formulas thatuse a classification error measure E and a learning rate
[14]Once trained, the CFIS can use its set of fuzzy rules toclassify any new feature vector X. The class assigned toX corresponds to the class associated with the rule j forwhich its degree of fulfilment is the highest.
Conception of “Hand 
Made” Fu 
zzy Rules 
It is possible to add handmade fuzzy rules (HMFR) toa FIS as
a priori 
knowledge. Typical
a priori 
knowledgeconcerning hand motor imagery EEG data concerns thepresence of contralateral ERD in the
bands [17].A human expert could formalize this knowledge usingsimple rules.Using schemes of trials and errors on the trainingsets, the optimal
value for λ was chosen to be 15.32 in
the four membership functions. It should be noted thatsuch rules cannot be learnt by the CFIS as theydescribe relationships between features and not theproperties of the features.
 The results obtained with the fuzzy logic in classifyingeach task are on an average of
of correctclassifications, with a peak of 82% (table I).
SubjectPercentage of correctclassification
Right hand movement 82Left hand movement 79.1Right foot movement77Left foot movement 76
The error-reject curve is displayed on Fig. 4 fordifferent subjects. The error-reject curves suggest CFISis able to identify and reject efficiently the outliers, whichmakes its error rate drop dramatically.
Fig. 4. The error-reject curve for different subjects

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