people; others associate the first Celtiberian speakers with the Atlantic Bronze Age.A number of scholars have even suggested that the Celtiberian language was Indo-European but not Celtic.3.
Some scholars maintain that there was a continuous process of ethnogenesis, whichwould push the search for the origins of the Celtiberian culture back to the thirdmillennium BCE. However, the author of this paper is more inclined to focus on theruptures that mark social and political developments. The emergence of the Celtiberianstates gave rise to a new cultural entity, parcelled out in the territory, for there never wasa unitary state associated with Celtiberia. Language was a shared element in Celtiberia,although it was spoken in an area larger in size than Celtiberia itself. Another elementthat set Celtiberians apart from Iberians was a social structure based on lineage, althoughthis eventually expanded through all of the Iberian interior territories.4.
(hillforts) display a central-street layout that dates to the beginning of the first millennium BCE. The structure of the houses, on the other hand, is characteristicof the historical period. Celtiberian
, which acted as aristocratic seats and served asthe heart of these "city-states", established a settlement hierarchy in the territory. Theminting of coins in the Celtiberian language took place in the same period as the Romaninvasion.5.
Some scholars believe that there were a series of Celtiberian migrations, first to CelticBaeturia (in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula) around the second century BCE andlater to Carpetania (in the mid Tajo River basin) and Aquitania during the first half of thefirst century BCE (after the Sertorian Wars).6.
Peasant communities with a farming type of economy inhabited the hillforts. The
of Segeda, described in this paper, is a good example. The bronze plaque of Contrebia Belaisca demonstrates the construction of long water canals as well as theexistence of an irrigation system. Stockbreeding was an important activity, although therewas no transhumance. Recent archaeological analyses provide us with a better knowledgeof the nutritional diet of the Celtiberian populations. There was a significant increase iniron mining, which took on industrial characteristics at the end of the second centuryBCE. Silver also was extracted from the Celtiberian territory. Metrological studiesconfirm the existence of a weight unit of 15 grams with multiples of 450 grams.7.
Based on pottery analysis we suggest the existence among the Celtiberians of a libationritual that played an important role in the consolidation of relations within extendedfamily groups. A true agricultural colonisation was fostered by the governors of the city-states.8.
Recent excavations of necropoli have provided us with a better understanding of thecremation ritual practiced in the area during this time. There is no reliable evidenceindicating that Celtiberians carried out human sacrifices.9.
Celtiberians have not been immune to modern re-interpretations: they have been