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English Grammar

English Grammar

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Published by Jordan Aguilar

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Published by: Jordan Aguilar on Jan 29, 2012
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2.7 GRAMMAR 2.7.1 English grammar  2.7.1.1 AdjectivesOrder of adjectives
  Attributive adjectives precede the nouns they modify. When several attributives are present, the one on which one places the most emphasis goes closest to the noun. Example: Look at this beautiful little girl. Here are some rules: Adjectives of colour, origin, material and function are usually placed in that order and directly before the noun they modify. Example: Black Spanish leather walking boots. Adjectives expressing judgments precede any others present. Example: I have a huge red suitcase.'First,' 'last' and 'next' usually precede any other adjectives present (e.g., numbers). Example: The monthly payments are high during the first two years only. That was the first American space capsule. Note. Commas are used between adjectives of equal importance when they complement one another. Example: A long, difficult exercise. It's a nice, well-equipped, four-room apartment.
 Placing the adjective
 The qualifying adjective is always invariable. Example: beautiful dresses, they are crazyThe attributive adjective is placed before the noun. Example: a red apple, very interesting movies, beautiful dresses
Compound adjectives
 The second part of a compound adjective, which is the more important part and ismodified by the first, may be:an adjective. Example: You're very self-confident. I fell in the water, and it was ice-cold!a present participle. Example: This movie's heartbreaking.a past participle. Example: Do you want some home-made cake? You go to a restaurant for a well-deserved dinner. We need a hand-held vacuum.a noun + -ed. Example: Your husband is a bad-tempered man. Note. Compound adjectives ending in -ed are primarily used as attributes when they havea concrete meaning. Otherwise they are predicates. Example: She's a long-legged girl. She's a fair-haired girl. What an old-fashioned lady! He's very green-fingered. Many compound adjectives fit none of the cases described above. Example: I bought some second-hand books. . I want an 18-month loan. The interest is ona four-year basis.
 Adjectives ending in -ing 
 The gerund (verb with -ing ending) can be used as an adjective. It generally has an activemeaning.
 
 Example: That was a disappointing day. This view is really exhilarating. These self- sticking stamps don't stick!
 Possessive adjectives
 Singular Plural 1st person my our 2nd person your your 3rd person masculine his their  feminine her their neuter its their The possessive adjective precedes a noun phrase. It never agrees with the noun that  follows. Example: I like my suit - I like my suits. She's visiting our house - She's visiting our houses.
2.7.1.2
 
 Adverbs Adverbs of time
 Some of the main adverbs of frequency and imprecise time are: 'always', 'never', '  sometimes', 'often', 'no longer', 'soon', 'already, 'still', 'usually', 'ever', and 'not . . .anymore.The adverb is placed:immediately before the verb (before the main verb when an auxiliary is present); Example: She often drinks alcohol at night. We sometimes watch videos. I never talk about the weather! How many passengers usually ride with you? It will soon be July 4th.after 'to be' in any simple tense, except when 'to be' is at the end of a sentence or in theimperative; Example: We are usually on time. I'm still very tired. It sometimes is! Always be on time.before a modal auxiliary and, less often, before auxiliary "be" or "have"; Example: I still can stay here for a while. They already have gone their way.at the end of a sentence. Example: It will be July 4th soon. They have gone already. How many passengers ridewith you usually? Are you going to drive it often? Never and always are often put before the auxiliary, to emphasize a point. Example: You never can manage this. I always have to wash up.
The adverb 'that' 
 'That,' in addition to being used as a demonstrative, can also be used as an adverb. Whenused as an adverb it goes before an adjective or other adverb. Example: Was the fog that thick? I had no idea I was that far in the red. Are you that afraid?This adverb is not to be confused with the demonstrative 'that.' 
 Relative adverbs
 The Relative Adverb µWhen¶ replaces a complement of time. Example: The day when he arrived, his family wasn't there.Where replaces a complement of place. Example: We live in a place where the sun shines very often.(The reason) why replaces an adverbial phrase of cause. Example: I don't know why he's so angry.(The reason) µwhy¶ replaces a complement of cause. Example: I don't know why he's so angry.
2.7.1.3
 
 Alphabet 
 Aa as in 'ant'  Bb as in 'book' Cc as in 'computer'  Dd as in 'dog' 
 
 Ee as in 'egg'  Ff as in 'frog' Gg as in 'ghost'  Hh as in 'house'  Ii as in 'insect'  Jj as in 'jeans'  Kk as in 'kitchen'  Ll as in 'light'  Mm as in 'monster'  Nn as in 'number' Oo as in 'office'  Pp as in 'pig' Qq as in 'question'  Rr as in 'rat' Ss as in 'son' Tt as in 'tie' Uu as in 'uncle' Vv as in 'vegetable' Ww as in 'watch'  Xx as in 'xylophone' Yy as in 'yacht'  Zz as in 'zebra' 
2.7.1.4
 
 Articles Definite and indefinite articles
 The definite article µThe¶ is the definite article in the singular and plural. Example: The cat is in the house. The cats are in the house.The indefinite article µA¶ is the indefinite article in the singular. In the plural, there is noarticle. Example: There is a cat in our garden. There are cats in our garden.
The difference between 'a' and 'an' 
 The indefinite article takes two forms.'A' is used before words that begin (phonetically) with consonants. Example: I'm a man. Are you a grandfather? That's a nice color! Note. Y, U and O at the beginning of certain words are pronounced as consonants. Thearticle 'a' is used in such cases. Example: I bought a yacht. You can download a one-megabyte file. I study at a university for foreigners.'An' is used before words beginning (phonetically) with vowels. Example: I have an apartment. It's an expensive shop. I have an uncle. Note. Before certain words beginning with silent h, the article 'an' is used. Example: An hour. An honest man.
The use and omission of 'the' 
 The article µthe¶ is used before plural nouns or uncountable nouns when the noun isdetermined, its meaning is defined by the context. Example: The cities in Europe are all very different. The coffee you gave me is really good.µThe¶ is not used: in generalizations with plural nouns or uncountable nouns. Example: I don't like towns. (plural noun) I prefer tea to coffee. (uncountable)µThe¶ is not used before a plural or an uncountable noun with the meaning of 'a certainamount of.' 

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