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4.6 Trujillo and the Caudillo Tradition- Howard Wiarda

4.6 Trujillo and the Caudillo Tradition- Howard Wiarda

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Published by: Saime Figueroa Rodriguez on Jan 29, 2012
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12/11/2012

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,20
'fiujilloand
the
Caudillo1Xadition
Trujil'1.o
and
the
Ca,udil1,q
'traditio»
especiallyin
the
19505,
to
the
point
that
he
becametotalitar-
.-T'}'..
hI·
f-
h
wi
h
an..'
.hat
transinon.
t_.ey
argue,
put
'11m
outo'
touc..
witr
hispeopleand
ledtohis'
a$~SaSsi11a.tion.
Studentsinterested
in
themorerecent'history
of
caudi-llismointh'eDominicanRepublic
should
co,n~:ultthe-last
half
ofthis
essay,
whichdealswiththe
subs:eq'uetlttule';,by
[oaquin
Balaguer
after
196~6.,
,'..nth,a,t
'ti:e,a
ts
the
Ttujillo
re-
Howard,thnt;there
1S'
alittleol
TrujillQ
tivebu
t
aisoapoliticaland
de.vglo.p~e~",,.-."...•....'
rriveat.',-',a1a-nc.edv'.iew
o,f-lhe.Domlnlc"all
R,
ep.,~ub.Ll.,lC.-
.be....
.'w.,.€,.en.
arIIvea
d'.,'.'~'
,I),'.'-....-.......,-,,.."
1"9...
so..-.,'.'".'
'1'
9'-"6'
'1
T',
'h
~e
auth
ors
::1Je..wtl
1
kllQW.
n.
L.
a
t.l·..
.n..
A._:'
11.'1.'.
e.
.~.'~'
.Dan,....,.,'"
'·1d
t'
,-.'..''.".'_.'-.-H-.
o''
rd..
W""l'
a'
f,d..,,·1(!,maIIY:
work·s
inc-.t.L'
e
a.8.-.:e.-s.·.Sffi.;."
.en,.
.'
canists.'owa'...
.,0:~"_.,'~
h,
()f
s~chn1fijOr
topiesas
:eorp.9ratism
and
thelPl'r'os.p~ects.
t
.tlev~1()pmentthroughou7
t~e~etrtisph~r~
~~~e~s;~~n~tra.-ing~tudies0f
the
Domt.
l1lca
ll
Repub~l~._He
lsaroo~g
,thG~e
·.h'
h..
lars
w.·,····c:h",
0··'
.·"",...
.rnag..
i
nst
the
.a:npJlcntlon
ofAn..
gJo....v.3.
u.,.
sc
'U.,.',..
€L"
'it''.
M'
h'
1
s1s
telIlSin
the
evaluatiDn
of
LatinAmericansptities....••
C~~e
ihyzan~lcjstheau
thaiof
atextOJiUni
ted
St~tes-Latll1
Amer-
ican
~~~t~~~!~
ascontribute~
byWiatdaa~dKryz~nek
to.
a
,..,.";'..,:j:'f':'
Revi"talRtview
Int~.ramem;anQ
devotedto
t...
e·
?-.".'~.~"'...~'..........
t
n:'.'.....",
blish..a
an'dpolitician,
as
told
to
one
'afthe.
authors
..'.retations
of
oliticalphenom-
ena
are
ti)'arke,d,by
fads,
phase-sf
.and
cytllc.alJ-alm,Qstyear.y·
snge-
BveIS.For
a.time
'during
the
K;enn',~ay
eta,we.rushedmissionary
a:nd
Peace
Corps-style
ttl
condemn
all
dictatorships
and
embrace,
thedemo€.ratic:
Left.
Theil,under
the
influence
of.
[uan
Lina's
typolbgy.and
sympathetictreatment13uthoritarianand
even
semi-
fascist
regimes.were
agaih
legitimizedasareasoi);eseafthillquIry.
'Now
lin1977],underPresidentCarter'shuman-rights
campaign,
.we
seem
agaipto
he
indiscrimin,atelyhostile,
and
conclemnatoqt
,·'tow·a[dall
authoritarian
regime-sa.nOpra.ctices..
Manyoftheolder:generatiouofLatinAmericanists,as
well
assome
:01
the
newer
ones,
havebeen
both
more
consramand
mo'redisCliminating.intheirrreatmcnt,[For
example.]
inaslim"Carlbnean
Dlct,a.tofS...,:..~.....'''.'
l
K.-~t..
,f·
c.-r-l··'t'e·.:,r-l·?
to·.·.me:tlSUf.··e
:c.··(luo,ill
d.
te'.g..
~lme~
art..
d
t•..
l.,e.'
R
tes.,..
.-.,''.
IS·
o·,,.'....
Q',..,.....
f.
1.
ta-"items,againstthehistoricalrecord:
o
pattlCaaIlrnp.ot~nce
isthe.streJ5$
theyput
on
the:dynam~4S
ofchan~e()~er
the
tlner-.
decades
of
Tnlj
illo's.ru1e~
ThecauQ:illO's,success
wasam~,the~
areue
tohisskillful
~mploy
ofauthoritaria~t~th~ique5
a~
l1rt~m;lrkable
~p~thy
with
[JciIni";ican
asp~rauons,
cspe-
...,'-I
analY'SlS
0
th~
early
.,yoluqie
pu,
gnlshed
betw.een
constitutionalpresidents,
d~el'rl"agogic
PlJidillos,
military
~:gu~,(;(tdians:j
and
·p·;aternalisticc'audillos,.·".~
The..pr:c;;s;entesS:aydrllW:S
uponthe
earlier
literaturein.fashion-
inga
model,
ormore,
accurated
y
aset
of
characteristics
or
cheCklu.t,
of
modern
caudillo
.rulc.
It
then
proceeds
to
examineand
reinter-'."meIn
the
DominicanRepublic
in
thelightof
The
JCaudillo~Mn,del
Withoutatthistimerehashing
the
old
thesesofwhetherauthori-
tarianism
in
LatinAmerica
is,
.,,21,
product.ofcultural,
social,
poli
ti~
.'economIC]
247
 
,'dWiarda
and
Michael
Krywnek'..;.
,]-lowaI...
r.',.'
,'>
cen'ttalizedrule,
or
theaspiration
dentlybe
a~,ertedthat
str~~g
'k
of
the
area.
At
present,cen~ral-
thereto,h.as.lo.-...
,.g.~....
....
e.et\
a.
.h.a.""..
m
'da~-,,'
th,"
ex
xe
.cutive
branch,
.pa.r.tl...:'.u.,.~
.."".nt'r.''4't~··In'.
e
e.....
d
ized
authority
1S
conc~1",'"'£h:e-;
re~id.ency.Themodern-c
ay
larly\·'.
the
offi.t~.e.
a.n.'
...
p.er.s"
.o,n.",,~.,
,.t.,'.
'b
P.:",
c.
"U.'
sed
to
argue,
is,
compa.~"-.
'.'d'.Frank
Tannen
·:aum.'....
k
....'c'd."}i:l<
president,as,,'
a.:.:.'~.'":.~'.;"'.'..'.,..'"
n;
1001
.at
ca..
."
1..0....-..'
th.'
A.
··t·.·,
emperors,
OI,
one.ca.
'.~."hi
nowersto
t
··z
,ec."........_,'
i
o]
the
ra..
ible
m.,
1.
.s.
p.....'.."'..
L'...,."A'···
e..·.r·
1"
c
·'a.·.
"'1.'
9.
an
e.xtens.,
10.
n..
0,'.,".
....d.
a
tm.
m".
BdO'.
<
gh
t..
eimp..
erial
presi'Jenc:y'
m,.'."._'.''.,
.d.-·
ortu
"g''''lAndalthmn..
..''.,.'"..'an,
I..."
".0.,.
I.
I:'")-
I,".__
I'"'"-~I~~
,".....;;htweentheninetee.nth-
and
twen·
cont.jn..u.I.t.'Y
t..
.h,.
an.·._
.l..
f..
e~e
,ll.~
n..
.t~o.•....
"
,c
1·
~':""'''''l':"
bas,e.<
that..
n.·.-.ws....
c
l·~~.·.
:.I..
a.
n.1
d
,~L"-~':
dillos
It18
"a·S.a:
,.~le......'''.,_..,.,..'~'
tleth-c.e.~n.tUIYe.a,u_.,"'.'.'
id..,,·'1"~'.',..,-.
newforms01
organize..
t.l?.
In.,.
....,.'.:".'.·UI·e~'new1eo
ogles"..".."
.f
the
'ecO'n'0n11C
p,ress,.·····91..'''.,..
h..,·.d,
the
teg"~lmeRO!'
Ul."..
..'....,fc
ontrol
hav)..s·ape;..'..'...
and
new
dtechnd-"
qtu:sr~'•~~e,~odel
a~d
discussion
below
seekhsto
.m,c'·.o.:re:ro·o.":
e.•
..
n.""".l.,.C
a
L;...;~~..
"'>~".."~"
tie':"..,
ll..'.
the,,p.·hall.g.
~'S
~hat.:
i
'a.v.
e.·
.......,.'t'".'-
ities
aswe
as,'.'.',.
'-f.,...
th"
,,d·dr:'essboth
t.·.
hese
G."on'·lDu.._.'..-·:
·.~h:.:.'....~
tal
reference
to
'.~",e
ak·
<.".._.
d.•.1"1'
t
:'ad'!'
nonWIt·
&p,e.Cl,a..
~'.':'.'d
'"'0'..
the,'cauar
.·0
'.f,,'."}.;.
nccurre
r=
I".'.~
DDminicanRepublic.,
d
L
t
the
11"
st
o"'fdescriptive
ch'~rr.acJe,ti$~·
.1"
u
be
rnaetna'~
_.,;J,
b.~o
c'
a:lb~
'cwan,l~,,~~eall_inclu$ive.
T:helistwas
l<i5hiO
f
:i-
1
1
·e.d
d··,
,
tics~l'v,en'.
eio,,'"':,,
device
to
describe;
the,natur~
0,~~"
authors
asa
convenient.."'.''.,'
ld
11'
kely
Include.
~,nerobserverswou'"
.
,
"
'.
,
..'~.,~.','"the
pre'sen
tones.."..
ent
chal';lctenStlcs,
or
?1Ve.
,',f~'.
Iheuristictool
which
'we
-:,th1
,'~S'
the..
IS.t
IS·
ause,
u,~..."_",'--If
I
Never,
;ees"",aast
andpres{":ntDQmInlcanrejJunes.,_',
help~l
In
~nll.lyz~~gp.,zaboutcaudilloism
iIi
othercontexts,
find
1t
useful
in
thinking--,.h
.ized
that
what
w·e,
.a,
'd
bu
t
it
ill
ust
be,em
P
<;lSlZ..
<_-
IS
w,-ell..n'~
~OO..
j
'f'
'h-'.~,
't'~.'
stics
"withonly
modest'
presenting
1S
'11
set
0C
.a_rac
er."..
.a
full-H
O'\,.I..:1;H
"'"',..",.,I
",rule..',.
The
following
is
offered
ilB.ag:~e.r~!•.•••
of.
,eaudll.l.'..
0..'..,.,........'.'
de
hi-.'
.tternsand
;ohar,acterlstlcS
'0."
f"-.'.
m':
e·.
m'"
a.J'c·'.'~
lea.
er8
"lP
pa
,c
{'lo,no·soo.'.
I.:
Jl
__,<-"',".'•~..~
t.audille
reg-ime:
.d'.
~l·l·.:.1~.fd'i
~e'r·~l:.ome
geller,all
y
(@.lth,pughnot
1.
,Cau,.
'1.0
ea......,~.
Truiillcan
d'
tbe
C(lfg
dille.
'1}
a
di
ti
on'
sivelyJfromthemilitary
and
relyprincipallyon
the
niiJitazy
rot
SII
pport.
2,
Caudilloleadershipischatacteritledby
a
strong
personalis-tic
style
and
way
of
dealing
with
the
citizenry.3,Caudilloleadersgoverninapaternalist:icand
highly
cen-tralizedInenner.4.Caudillolea:der~
tend
to'
remainin
office_.
foran
'e.Xtel1'dep
periodoftjmt}.c,on:tinuis
W
often
implies
suppressmnofthe
OPposition,
the
ere-
ationofofficial!government"sanctionedParties
an-d
otherpowerb;aseslall~da
dictatorial
'hold
0.0
power.
6.
Caudillo
l¢:a:ders
have
gene-rail
y
avoidedwhat
North
Ameri_
canswould
term
demoeranr.
norms
of
gClVientanc
e;
instead
they
tend
toerectorganicstatesystems.7.CaudiUo.leadersg;e.neralIydeveloppublic
policies,(iesignetl
to
.enrieh
themsdVt\$
and
theirclientele,
to
perpetuate
them-
selves
in
power,andtopreservelhest~tus
qUQ
that
they
hl'lVt{
established.
.
8.
Caudillo
leaders
tend
to
see
little
sharpdiflerence
between
the
publicand
privatedomains,theyoperate
withina
patri-m,onialis
tconCeptiol1
and
often
userhetr
office
:iUU
theappara-
tUB
.;of
.govcmmenr
foraIeaders,pilrticularlyin
the
,Circum-Caribbean
area,have.seen
'theadvantages
of
developingclose
ties
WiththeUnitedStatesgovenlment;
by
the
sametoken
they
tendtobe
aggres.,SiVC:in
.curbing'inter.Qt;JJ
c.
ommumse
,',Q·Ct'i
vities,10.Althoughcaudillole~deJS;may
gOV€ifi
inanauthoritartanfashion,whichis
otten
areflection
of
theirownsociety's
'
.
tarians.ThereareIimnsbeyond
Which
acaudillo
leader
mal'
110t
go.
Ruling
in
a
tyrannicalfashion
violaees
the
informalbut
widely
understoodsotial~ontractor
"rulesof
the
game';
,gOvef.Qing
thecaudiUo'sn;;laUonswithpolitic;~lsociety,and
jU5tifies
rebellionagainst
his
regi:lne.
249
 
Howard
Wial,da:
andMichael
KrYZCl.l1Bk
Withthissetofcharacterlstics
in,
mind,letus.looknow
at
the[regime.]lof
Trujillo~
+0
The'IrujilloRegime:
A
Reinterpretation
.<,....
Thetegito,~of
Raf~el
Leonidas
TrujilloMoli~a~~930~.
6'~1
has
~e~~
widely
characterizedas
a
bloodytyranny,
asl~deed
dur~ng~ertam
periods
it:
was.
Th~e.arlybooks
on
the
;~eglI~~,.~tlch.asthos~
byBosch,Galindez,andOrnes"cast.Trujillo
In
th;eevtl~st
ana
."oftermsas
"8.....
murderer,
ass.ass..
fas-
TI:ujillo
Qlrdtne·
Caudill.O"
llt1dition.
pr~sented
earlier.
He
XO$e
upthrough
themilitaryjandthe
armed
forcesalwa·ys
remained
the
primarysupport
ofhis
regime.
His
~~e
was~ersonaHstic,and
charismatic.Hegcverned
in
apatemal-
Istre
and
highlycentralized
nranncr......
He
governed
autocran-
cally,
brutallysuPPle:ssedallopposition,created
an
official
party
andaraft
ofother
.offieial
agencies,
and
elimln;1led
all
pntential
.sources,
of'ch.allenge
tohis
regime,.
'.Though
TruiiIIo
was
a
man
of
action
more
than
an
ideol
currents
t),
.-E
,-B·-.·.··
··t·.
.h.
·.1·
ate
··.19···6··Q····
cAt·h~r·V·l·~~W:'··~
eganto
be
p>resenre.d.Th...
ee
y.
'ea
-e,
'.ej
Le'We
.:!w
.;J
._'.<,.."_._...-""~':
v-,~..
ma]~r
influenceshelpedshape
thenewer:~ntefpr~t~tio~s.
T~efl.rst
was
the
new
emphasis.err
deve:lopmemahsm.whu;h,wh~ap~hed.
to.
the
Dominican
Republie.emphasizcdnot
Jus:t
the,,s.~:rdl~
n~ture
of
the
Trujillo.
regimebutalso
its
centralizing,con~ol~dntl1~g!,na·ticn-buildingacluevements.
The
secopd.wa~
~e
Linzian
dlSb~t.
tionbetweenau
thorltarlanis
m
and
totahta:f1a:n~sin.
and
the
mo.re·
or-less
sympathetic
presentation.oftheauthont~:rtanal~er~~t~~e'whichmade
it
somewhat
easier
-fo.r
scholars
to;
discussTrujillo's
authoritarianism
ill
rational
and
functienal
teInrsrathe~
thsnfrom
the·po\rit
pi
view
(if
automaticcondemnation.
The~htrd
\\r~s,·~b~.·
un:'..
.tion
0
Robert
C..
weller'ss
perb
hi..'.,It.o'!
T~J;dlo·
'-..'...'..'...'organic,
n,.etJ~·Cdqlor!1tize.d
state
system
'that
was
eventuallyestablished.
'Trujillo'.s
ptlbl-icpoIides
were:designed
'tohelpen,fich
the
rulin
<fa........
..'.1.".
ttopreservethenew
status
quo
he
-haa
established.
Trujillo
operated
withina
patrimo'hialisttradition
andsaw
Httie
Qr
noseparation
between
thepublic
and
theprivatedomains.Trujillo
~arefully,cultivatedhis
relations
withtheUnited
'States,
paltof
whichinvolved
posing
as
theHenlisphete's.,forelllost
anti.
COttmli.l:Qist.
Finally,Trujillotookpains
to
Operatewithinthe
parilmeters
of
theDominicanpolitical
tr~dition;
though
tdward
·theend,aswe.shallsee,
he
ov·erntepped
its
houlldariesadwas
·overtluown....
."Yhileitis
clear,thus,
that
thecaudillo
model
above
closely
descnbestheTrujilloregime,
it
is,a
static
descriptionratherthanadynaillic
ODe.
It
provides
Htdes:ens.e;of
theebb
and
£Low
of
events
.
which,
though
weak
on
the.
historical
cQhtin~i~
of
hl~.
regime
withinthelongtraditionof
Dominican
caudilloisrn,
presented
Trujillo'sIifeandactivities
syrnpatheticallyand
made~h;~
un'
derstandable(thoughnotnecessarilytom.tn~ndable'
~ltlun
the
OOIit~ofDominicansocietyandculture.
Thisapproaeh
has
been
holsteredin
recentjrears
by·a
whole
bodyof
Iiteratureand~els~ec.
.r-...-...'.",,'.
e:cotre$,pol1,tjin.g
·th~ngesmthe
Trujilh;ldicta:torshiPi
and
hew
hisregime
first~nloyed
widespread
popularityandthenfell
outside
thenational
consen~u8.
Letu$try
to
pmvlde'thelie
perspectiVes
now,
by
con.
QentratliIg
on
the.insightsprovidedby
the
newer
literature..First.
it
isimportant
to'
think
oftheTrttjillo'regime
Within
a
developmentperspeC'tiv'e.
Thecontext
of.
times".
!iii..
mare
sympathetically,
instead
oft~roll~th~
biased
p~r~pec.
of.
the
LlnitedStates.Thediscussionmthis,part
0
£
'the.seekstoanalyze,sort
out,
.and
fuse
whatis
useful
in.these
va
interpretations,.
-r..,.
..There.cart
he
no
doubt
Trujillo
was,first
ofall,
a.'
...'.'.'.,..'......'.upon
t
'e.'.
eels
0;£
the
collap.s.e
of
~~~Idollgatchic
order.
He
stepped
intoand
fllIecLa
poweI.and-
legltlmacy
vacuum
brQughtaboutby
the
faetthatwhile
an
older
.••....ernhad
di:;;integrated,no
new
or
m.oden~
one
hadas
yet
~~ged
that.
wassufficiently.•.....·.totakeits.
place.
Inthis
sense
1110's
w·asatran,sitiOfl.a1e...;~:newperiodof
xrowehand
C.Ol1So1h:~~~i.on
25.1

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