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M. Deepu, S. S. Gokhale and S. Jayaraj- Numerical Simulation of Shock-Free Shear Layer Interaction in Reacting Flows

M. Deepu, S. S. Gokhale and S. Jayaraj- Numerical Simulation of Shock-Free Shear Layer Interaction in Reacting Flows

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International Journal of Dynamics of FluidsISSN 0973-1784 Vol.2, No.1 (2006), pp. 55-71© Research India Publicationshttp://www.ripublication.com/ijdf.htm
Numerical Simulation of Shock-Free Shear LayerInteraction in Reacting Flows
M. Deepu
1
, S. S. Gokhale
2
and S. Jayaraj
3
1
 Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering N S S College of Engineering, Palakkad, Kerala-678 008, India Email: m.deepu@rediffmail.com
2
Professor in Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras-600 036, India Email: ssg1@ae.iitm.ac.in
3
Professor in Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala-673 601, India Email: sjayaraj@nitc.ac.in
 
Abstract
The performance of any supersonic combustor system depends on efficientinjection and complete burning. Computational analysis of the flow fieldassociated with supersonic combustors is presented. Results are obtained bynumerically solving unsteady, compressible, turbulent Navier-Stokesequations, using Unstructured Finite Volume Method (UFVM) incorporatingRNG based
κ 
-
ε
two equation model and time integration using three stageRunge-Kutta method. The developed numerical procedure is based on theimplicit treatment of chemical source terms by preconditioning. Reaction ismodeled using an eight step H
2
-air chemistry. The code is validated againststandard experimental data. The analysis could demonstrate the effect of interaction of oblique shock wave with hydrogen stream in its mixing withcoaxially flowing air and subsequent reaction.
Key words
: SCRAMJET, Supersonic combustor, Reduced chemistry, Pointimplicit method, FVM.
Introduction
The recent interest in single stage to orbit trans-atmospheric vehicle has lead to thedevelopment of a hypersonic flight [1-5], which incorporates a supersonic combustor.Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine (SCRAMJET) benefits from the betterperformance of air breathing propulsion system. Scramjets need a combustor that
 
56
 M. Deepu, S.S. Gokhale and S. Jayaraj
 should have efficient mixing and combustion of fuel with air at supersonic speedswithout much pressure loss [5, 6]. Many experimental and numerical analyses havebeen reported during the last few decades regarding the characteristics of the complexflow field resulting due to fuel air mixing and combustion. Many fuel injection andflame holding techniques which can have efficient fuel oxidant mixing with accurateburning rate have been developed but there is always a trade-off between mixingeffectiveness and pressure drop occurring inside the combustor affecting the totalpropulsive thrust available at the nozzle.Performance of a supersonic combustor system depends on efficient injection andcomplete burning. Future hypersonic vehicles are expected to require the performanceand operability benefits from air breathing propulsion systems as it is providing highspecific impulse [3]. The use of supersonic combustors in such vehicles requiresefficient supersonic combustion in combustor lengths short enough to be compatiblewith practical engine sizes.Combustion modeling simulates the chemical and physical evolution of a complexreactive flow system by numerically solving the governing time dependentconservation equations of mass, momentum and energy. The reaction zone propagatesas a consequence of strong coupling between combustion chemistry and theappropriate fluid mechanical process. The combustion model should accuratelypredict the strong interaction between the energy released from chemical reactionsand the dynamics of fluid motion. The chemical reaction leads to the generation of gradients in temperature, pressure and density, which in turn influence the transport of mass, momentum and energy. Macroscopically these gradients may lead to thedevelopment of vorticity or affect diffusion of mass and energy. On a microscopicscale, these gradients develop turbulence and thereby influence mixing and flamevelocities. The interaction of fuel with oxidizer is very difficult to predict in suchsystems due to high non linear dependence of various flow parameters and chemicalsource terms. Therefore predicting strong interplay between chemistry and fluiddynamics in reacting flows is the real challenge in combustion modeling. The use of supersonic combustors in atmospheric vehicles requires efficient combustion withincombustor lengths which is short enough for practical engine sizes. Supersonicreacting flow field can be simulated by adding finite rate chemistry to standardcompressible Navier Stokes equations. Both turbulence and chemical kinetics areimportant, since the residence time inside the combustor is much smaller. Explicittreatment of all conservation terms with reaction chemistry results in stiff equationsand it will degrade the performance of numerical method as flow field and chemicalkinetics with differing time scales need to be solved simultaneously. Existence of several non-equilibrium states creates challenges in solution procedure. Governingequations of turbulent shear layer flows involving finite rate chemistry are oftendifficult to solve due to stiffness (Ratio of largest time scale to smallest). Stiffnesswill degrade the performance of numerical methods. While handling two differingtime scales, both can be advanced equally in pseudo time. In other words, it can betreated as way of rescaling the equation in time such that both phenomena evolve atcomparable pseudo time scales resulting in higher time steps for integration.Comparison of the numerical result has been done with the standard axisymmetric
 
 Numerical Simulation of Shock-Free Shear Layer 
57
 
reacting free shear flow experimental measurements of Cheng
et al
. [7] The predictedheat release and species production rates are found to have reasonable agreement withthe experimental results. The analysis has been extended to study the mixing andreacting behavior of hydrogen injection issuing into hot supersonic air stream withangled inlet.
Governing Equations of Compressible Reacting Flows
The conservation form of equations, which govern a two dimensional turbulentcompressible flow can be expressed in a generic form for axisymmetric flows as1()
UFrGStxr
+ + =
(1)Where
( )
2
, F=
 xxrxr  xxxrrefii
uuuvuv Euv xUu xu xuY 
κ ε 
ρ ρ σ ρ ρ σ ρ ρ ρ σ σ ρ κ ρκ ρ κ µ ρε ε ρ ε µ ρ ρ 
+++ + =
 
( )( )
2
001G= and0
rrxrxr rrrrxefiri
vuvvP EvuSv H  H vv
θθ κ κ ε ε 
ρ ρ σ ρ σ σ ρ σ σ κ ρ κ µ ε ρ ε µ ω ρ 
++++ + =
 Here221233
 xxef
uurvP xxr
σ ρκ µ 
 = + +  
 
 xrrxef
uvrx
σ σ µ 
= = +
 

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