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M. Valentino, C. W. Kauffman and M. Sichel- Experiments on Shock Induced Combustion of Isolated Regions of Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixtures

M. Valentino, C. W. Kauffman and M. Sichel- Experiments on Shock Induced Combustion of Isolated Regions of Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixtures

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(c)l999 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
A994 6669 F
M. ValentinoAir Force Research LaboratoryMunitions DirectorateEglin AFB, FL 32542C. W. Kauffman, M. SichelDepartment of Aerospace EngineeringThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor, MI 48109
39th AIAA Aerospace SciencesMeeting and ExhibitJanuary II-W, 1,999 / Reno, NV
For permission to copy or republish, contact the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191
(c)l999 American Institute of Aeronautics & AstronauticsAIAA-99-0821
EXPERIMENTS ON SHOCK INDUCED COMBUSTION OF ISOLATEDREGIONS OF HYDROGEN-OXYGEN MIXTURESM. Valentino-Air Force Research Labora toryMunitions DirectorateEglin AFB, FL 32542C. W. Kauffman’, M. Siche!Department of Aerospace EngineeringThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor, MI 48 109ABSTRACTThe interaction of a strong plane shockwave with isolated regions of gaseous mixtureswas examined through a series of shock tubeexperiments. Specifically, the non-uniformmixtures examined consisted of a sphericalbubble of pure hydrogen or hydrogen-oxygenmixtures surrounded by either an oxygen,nitrogen or air atmosphere. Shocks in therange of Mach 1.7 to 3.7 were studied. Theinteraction events where recorded with highspeed shadowgraphs and pressure tracerecordings. No chemical reactions wereobserved in the interactions of shocks withstrengths up to Mach 3.7 with a pure hydrogenbubble due to inadequate mixing of thereactants. In addition no reaction wasobserved for shocks up to Mach 3.0 interactingwith a premixedstoichiometric bubble.However, shock induced combustion wasobserved for incident shock strengths aboveMach 3.0. This demarcation between reactionand non-reaction corresponds to the classicalthird explosion limit for a hydrogen-oxygenmixture. This data will aid the study of theinitiation and propagation of detonation wavesand provide a useful set of test data forcomputational fluid dynamics codes involvingreactive flows.INTRODUCTIONThe interactions of shock waves with fluid non-uniformities have long been studied. Typicallythese studies have looked at the interface of twofluids of different densities. Cases of both a shockmoving from a light gas into the heavy gas and viceversa have been examined.Markstein [1,2],Richtmyer [3], Meshkov [4], Catherasoo &Sturtevant [5] and Brouillette & Sturtevant [6]examined the instabilities generated by thepassage of a shock wave at planar interfacesbetween two different density gases. Abd-el-Fattah, et al. [7,8,9] also looked at shock wavesinteracting with interfaces between fluids ofdifferent densities but with an emphasis onexamining the process of shock wave refractionand reflection. Haas & Sturtevant [IO] extendedthis work by looking at shock interactions withcylindrical and sphericalinterfaces. Theirexperimental images clearly show how the passageof a shock wave over a light gas sphere deformsthe sphere into a vortex ring.The vorticity generation in these spheres due toa shock passage can easily be explained byexamining the vorticity equation,The second term on the right shows that vorticity,w, will be generated whenever the density and
Aerospace Research Engineer, Member AlAAProfessor, Member AIAA* Professor, Member AIAAThis material is a declared work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
1American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
(c)l999 American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
pressure gradients are not aligned. This term isknown as the baroclinic torque.The case of a shock passing over acylindrical volumeof less dense gassurrounded by a heavier gas is depicted inFigure l(a). As the shock proceeds across thetest volume votticity is generated along theinterface of the two gases. The maximumvotticity is generated when the density andpressure gradients are at ninety degreescorresponding to the top and bottom of thecylinder represented in Figure l(b). The resultis that the vorticity tends to deform the cylinderinto a kidney shape shown in Figure l(c) andeventually into a pair of vortex lines. Byextension it is easily seen that a sphericalbubble would tend to form into a vortex ring.Marble et al. [l l] first proposed using theinduced vorticity generated at a light/heavy gasinterface when subjected to a steep pressuregradient as a mechanism to enhance themixing of the fuel and oxidizer in a scramjet.The application of this mechanism to practicalscramjet engines was examined by Marble etal. [12], Waitz et al. [13] and Lee et al. [14, 151.Conceptually, the mixing would occur byinjecting the hydrogen fuel as a cylindrical jetinto the supersonic airflow in the combustor.The combustor floor would be ramped suchthat a weak shock would be generated suchthat it interacted with the fuel jet leading tomixing of the fuel and oxidizer.For the most part the research cited abovehas looked at the interaction of relatively weakshock waves (I Mach 1.25) and inert gases.The thrust of the present work is to make theextension to stronger shock waves and toconsider the interaction of the shocks withchemically reactive gases.Consider spherical bubbles of purehydrogen immersed in an oxygen atmosphere.As a shock passes over the hydrogen bubblethe baroclinic torque mechanism will create apair of vortex rings and lead to mixing of thehydrogen and oxygen. The mixing coupledwith the increased pressure and temperaturebehind the shock wave can lead to conditionswere chemical reaction might take place. Forthe case of premixed bubbles, no additionalmixing is required however the temperatureand pressure behind the shock wave must beAIAA-99-0821
.sufficiently high~to initiate a chemical reaction. Theoverall goal of the experiments was to gain insightinto the conditions required for shock inducedcombustion of the isolated test volumes.EXPERIMENTSThese experiments were conducted in the-shocktube shown schematically in Figure 2. Theshock tube has a rectangular cross section withinternal dimensions of 64 x 38mm and isapproximately 8m long.Mylar diaphragms areused to separate high-pressure helium in the driversection from the remainder of the tube.Thediaphragms have a thickness of 0.2mm and arestacked together in various numbers depending onthe desired shock strength. The test-section,located approximately 4.5m downstream of thediaphragms, has removable glass windows thatallow a 200 x 50mm field of view.Pulsed laser shadowgraphs were used tocapture the shock interactions with the test gasspheres through the glass windows located in thetest section. The pulsed laser system, shown inFigure 3, consists of a Spectra Physics argon-ionlaser model 2020 coupled with a cavity-dumpermodel 334. A gated pulse frequency signal is sentto the cavity-dumper to control the number andfrequency of images taken during a run. Typicallythe laser is set to pulse for 4OOy.s with a pulse widthof 9ns and a pulse separation of 2 to 20~sproviding up to 35 frames of the interaction processper run. A Cordin streak camera is used to capturethe images on astrip of 70mm x 300mm Kodak panfilm 2484.Along with the shadowgraph system a series ofpressure switches are located upstream of the testsection.These are used to give shock velocitymeasurements and initiate the laser pulse system.In addition to the pressure switches, two pressuretransducers located inside the test section are usedto provide pressure traces during the interactionprocess. Finally, a fast response photo detectorwas aimed through the test section windows at thetest gas spheres. The diode used can resolveindividual light flashes on the order of 1microsecond. The detector was to record any lightemissions that would indicate a chemical reactiontaking place.To prepare for an experimental run the entireshock tube driven section is first evacuated thenfilled with the proper gas (oxygen, nitrogen or air) at2American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

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