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Basic Control Theory

Basic Control Theory

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Published by: ghass815 on Nov 14, 2008
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11/29/2012

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The Steam and Condensate Loop
5.2.1
Basic Control Theory
Module 5.2
Block 5
Basic Control Theory
Module 5.2
Basic Control Theory
 
The Steam and Condensate Loop
Basic Control Theory
Module 5.2
5.2.2
Block 5
Basic Control Theory
Basic Control Theory 
Modes of control
An automatic temperature control might consist of a valve, actuator, controller and sensor detectingthe space temperature in a room. The control system is said to be in balance when the spacetemperature sensor does not register more or less temperature than that required by the controlsystem. What happens to the control valve when the space sensor registers a change in temperature(a temperature deviation) depends on the type of control system used. The relationship betweenthe movement of the valve and the change of temperature in the controlled medium is known asthe mode of control or control action.
There are two basic modes of control:
o
On/Off -
The valve is either fully open or fully closed, with no intermediate state.
o
Continuous -
The valve can move between fully open or fully closed, or be held at anyintermediate position.Variations of both these modes exist, which will now be examined in greater detail.
On/off control
Occasionally known as two-step or two-position control, this is the most basic control mode.Considering the tank of water shown in Figure 5.2.1, the objective is to heat the water in the tankusing the energy given off a simple steam coil. In the flow pipe to the coil, a two port valve andactuator is fitted, complete with a thermostat, placed in the water in the tank.
Fig. 5.2.1 On/off temperature control of water in a tank
2-port valve and solenoidSteamCondensateSteam trap setThermostat (set to 60
°
C)
The thermostat is set to 60
°
C, which is the required temperature of the water in the tank. Logicdictates that if the switching point were actually at 60
°
C the system would never operate properly,because the valve would not know whether to be open or closed at 60
°
C. From then on it couldopen and shut rapidly, causing wear.For this reason, the thermostat would have an upper and lower switching point. This is essentialto prevent over-rapid cycling. In this case the upper switching point might be 61
°
C (the point at which the thermostat tells the valve to shut) and the lower switching point might be 59
°
C (thepoint when the valve is told to open). Thus there is an in-built switching difference in thethermostat of ±1
°
C about the 60
°
C set point.This 2
°
C (±1
°
C) is known as the switching differential. (This will vary between thermostats).A diagram of the switching action of the thermostat would look like the graph shown inFigure 5.2.2. The temperature of the tank contents will fall to 59
°
C before the valve is asked toopen and will rise to 61
°
C before the valve is instructed to close.
24 VdcAir signal
 
The Steam and Condensate Loop
5.2.3
Basic Control Theory
Module 5.2
Block 5
Basic Control Theory
Fig. 5.2.2 On/off switching action of the thermostat
Figure 5.2.2 shows straight switching lines but the effect on heat transfer from coil to water willnot be immediate. It will take time for the steam in the coil to affect the temperature of the waterin the tank. Not only that, but the water in the tank will rise above the 61
°
C upper limit and fallbelow the 59
°
C lower limit. This can be explained by cross referencing Figures 5.2.2 and 5.2.3.First however it is necessary to describe what is happening.At point 
 A 
(59
°
C, Figure 5.2.3) the thermostat switches on, directing the valve wide open. It takestime for the transfer of heat from the coil to affect the water temperature, as shown by the graphof the water temperature in Figure 5.2.3. At point 
B
(61
°
C) the thermostat switches off and allowsthe valve to shut. However the coil is still full of steam, which continues to condense and give upits heat. Hence the water temperature continues to rise above the upper switching temperature,and overshoots at 
C
, before eventually falling.
Fig. 5.2.3 Tank temperature versus time
From this point onwards, the water temperature in the tank continues to fall until, at point 
D
(59
°
C), the thermostat tells the valve to open. Steam is admitted through the coil but again, it takes time to have an effect and the water temperature continues to fall for a while, reaching itstrough of undershoot at point 
E
.The difference between the peak and the trough is known as the operating differential. Theswitching differential of the thermostat depends on the type of thermostat used. The operatingdifferential depends on the characteristics of the application such as the tank, its contents, theheat transfer characteristics of the coil, the rate at which heat is transferred to the thermostat,and so on.Essentially, with on/off control, there are upper and lower switching limits, and the valve is eitherfully open or fully closed - there is no intermediate state.However, controllers are available that provide a proportioning time control, in which it is possibleto alter the ratio of the on time to the off time to control the controlled condition. Thisproportioning action occurs within a selected bandwidth around the set point; the set point being the bandwidth mid point.
Upper switchingpoint 61
°
CSet point 60
°
CLower switchingpoint 59
°
CTank water temperature
OnOnOffOff
T
1
T
2
T
3
Time
Overshoot
 S wi   t   c h  i    g  d  i   f   f    e r   e t  i   l    o f   t  h   e r  m o  s t  t  
ABCDE
 O  p  e r  t  i    g  d  i   f   f    e r   e t  i   l   
ValveclosedValveopenSwitchoff
OnOffOff
T
1
T
2
T
3
Time
OnOn
SwitchoffSwitchonSwitchon

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