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VeikoKaru_Spatial Modelling Tools in Mining Areas for Improving Mining Process

VeikoKaru_Spatial Modelling Tools in Mining Areas for Improving Mining Process

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Published by: Veiko Karu on Jan 30, 2012
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International Symposium„Topical Problems in the Field of Electrical and Power Engineering“Pärnu, Estonia, January 11-16, 2010
Spatial modelling tools in mining areas for improving mining process
Mr Veiko KARU, Department of Mining, TallinnDepartment of Mining, Tallinn University of Technology, Teaching Assistant,Ehitajate tee 5, 19086, Tallinn, Estoniaveiko.karu@ttu.ee
 Mine planning will start with creating the digital model. The purpose of the model is to show how thelandscape will change after mining. Model containsdifferent parts like: water regime, deposit layout,near by objects and other elements which isconsidered to be important to show in the model toreflect the real situation. Model may be created withone or with several software programs. In the last case the different parts are divided between softwareand in the end the outcome is one whole model. Themodelling work can be done with different parts byusing one software for mine planning and another  software for the reuse of the landscape, wateregime, quality flow path etc. Digital planning of mining fields allows to take intoconsideration significantly more options and to prognosticate usage of mineral resource moreeffectively than with current simple decision making  process. Regulating criteria and methodology allowsdecreasing costs (time, money, human resource,mineral resource) as well in decision making processas in mining process. Utilizing the modelling processallows explaining all stages of designing to the specialists and to the public.
Oil Shale, modelling, geotechnology, environmental impact of mining, visualisation.
Mineral resources are exploited everywhere inEstonia, also in the sea bottom. Largest in volume arethe building materials: sand, gravel, clay and buildingstone – 57 % of total mass in 2008. The second half consists of fuel and technological raw material: oilshale, peat and technological lime- and dolostone.Over 400 (444 in 2008) licenses for mining resourceshave been given for enterprises. Mineral deposits (821in number in 2008) cover 13 % of the area of Estonia,including 8 % covered with peat and 4 % with oilshale.Mining alters the environment, undergroundconditions and landscape. Mining-related perturbingfactors and changes of property cause publicresistance. Various restrictions for mining(environmental restrictions) are created in reaction tothis. In the majority of the cases, their argumentationis one-sided, often subjective. As a result, it is not possible to utilize a large proportion of deposits because of environmental restrictions, but also because of expiration of evaluation criteria of thesupplies of resources.On the other hand, Estonia needs its resources – mineral and organic deposits, groundwater and groundsupport for building. Mining and building are tightlyrelated, particularly in the case of building materialresources. Despite this fact, it happens that thedomains of mining, building and agriculture oftenoperate without coordination. For instance, buildingsfor mining or mines
are planned in regions that havehigh potential for agriculture or building. In manycases, the reason is ignorance of spatial and temporalscales of effects of technogenic factors (mobility of soil, water or pollutants). This is magnified by the factthat the spatial-temporal mobility of such factors isnon-linear. Part of the problems is caused by minersthat do not apply environmentally friendly miningtechnologies.
1.Mining regions in Estonia
The principal mining regions of Estonia are: Lääne-Harju (Vasalemma, Padise, Harku etc. deposits), Ida-Harju (Lasnamäe, Väo, Maardu etc. deposits), Kunda-Rakvere (Toolse, Ubja, Aru etc. deposits) and Ida-Viru (Estonian oil shale deposit, peat deposit of Puhatu and many locations for mining buildingmaterial). Smallest number of problems is faced in oldmining regions, mainly because there exists the “State plan for utilization of oil shale, 2008-2015”. On theother hand, acceptable mining environment have beendeveloped in old mining regions.
Purpose of the study
The parties that compose mining plans, development plans and estimations of environmental effects (TUTDepartment of Mining, mining engineering offices,geological institutions) have acquired planning andmodelling software for various purposes, whichcauses some problems:1.The geological database, the first parts of whichdate back from over 50 years, requires skilfultreatment: data exist in several geodeticcoordinate systems and includes partly obsoletestratigraphic terminology. Unfitting coordinatesystems disturb the usage of cross-use of spatialdata in various state geoinformation databases(digital maps, border files, land registers, buildingregisters, databases of technological networks of enterprises, etc.). This creates further problemsrelated to mined areas.2.The main proportion of environmentalrestrictions, which have to be taken into accountin mining and building, are speculative and not based on real measurements. Usually therestrictions are two-dimensional and do not takeinto account the structures of the geologicalenvironment. Such vagueness does not support precise engineering calculations or modelling.3.Ground modelling systems that are designed indeveloped mining countries are principally meantfor deep deposits. However, in Estonia there are blanket deposits, which cause wideenvironmental effect of mining. Because of thatreason, imported systems have to be adapted.Modelling and planning software adapted for Estonian blanket deposits can be recommendedfor use in other analogical mining conditionselsewhere, e.g. in Ukraine or Jordan.
Mining is possible in any circumstances, provided that sustainable mining environmenthas been created. In other words, with the proper choice of mining technology, the effectof mining has been damped below the level thatthe nature and man can tolerate.
The methodology and criteria for planning,designing, modelling and accepting osustainable mining environment will provide the base for mineral raw material that the economyrequires, both in near and far future.
The conditions for optimal mining can beapplied for all Estonian resources, including sofar not utilized sites of granite, graptoliteargillite (raw material for uranium) and phosphorite. They can also be applied inanalogical mining conditions (blanket deposits)outside Estonia, particularly in the case of oilshale (Russia, Ukraine) but also for coal, browncoal, salts, etc.
The actual (measurable) effect of mining is upto a magnitude level smaller than is claimed.Because of this fact, the real (based onmeasurements) environmental restrictionsshould be less strict in the respective amount.
In hydrogeological circumstances of plentifulwater, such as the Toolse-Lääne study are of themining region of Rakvere-Kunda, it is possibleto find a usage for the water that is pumped out.
There are several mining software programs. They areeither freeware (different viewers), independent(GEMCOM Surpac and Minex, MapInfo, AutoCAD,ESRI, etc.) or additional (Discover, Map X, etc.) programs. Besides, it is possible to use online software programs (EduMine etc.). There are problems with thecompatibility of the projects, because there are somany different software programs, and institutions usedifferent software systems. Development of co-operation brings about difficulties in connection andtransition of data. A problem like this poses aneconomical problem – the designers have to have asmuch different software as possible for thecooperationto work [Application of Modelling Toolsin Estonian Oil Shale Mining Area.Oil Shale].With the modelling, including digital planning, theaim is to gain and create the following:1.Producing needed mining indicators for decision-making2.Future scenarios of mining oil shale and buildingmaterial, support for state and regionaldevelopment planning, technological solutionsthat take into account all possible environmentaleffects and social reactions3.New output: project solutions, theme maps,inquiries, zoning, evaluations of crises or risks4.Optimal methodology for gaining, storing andusing information, having in mine requirementsfor various purposes and levels5.More effective usage of geological, technologicaland spatial information, added functionality of thedatabase
4.1.Optimal mining software package for oilshale
The staff of the laboratory of mining design and planning applies mining software systems, tests anddevelops them in both research and teaching processes. The laboratory possesses software,databases, methods, hardware with necessaryequipment (scanners, printers, plotters, savers, presenters, servers) all listed in Websitehttp://mi.ttu.ee/mgislabor  [Karu et al. 2008].The following software used worldwide to modelmining operations has been set up in the laboratory:
1. Gemcom Minex – modelling of stratified deposits;2. Gemcom Surpac – modelling of mining processingand workings;3. Visual ModFlow; AquaChem modelling of groundwater flow andquality;4. MapInfo Professional, Discovery, MapBasic – GIS;5. Vertical Mapper – spatial modelling;6. Encom Discover spatial modelling for miningenvironment;7. AutoCAD Civil 3D – planning;8. FLAC – rock massive modelling;9. PLAXIS – geotechnical spatial modelling;10. Specific mining software (parameters of pillars, productivity, mining equipment cooperation and fleetcalculations, Caterpillar and Mining Department of TUT).
5.Case studies
5.1.Case 1. Use of mined areas
Mineral Resources must be planned well in planningthe direction of the extracted area of maintenance -trimming project. By way of illustration in trimmingLearning pathways (Fig 1).Solutions have been obtained using the database of research No. BF 97 „Applied solutions for modellingsystem with mining softwareand No. Lep8114„Preliminary Design of Geological Study Track inMaardu Mining Areacarried out by TallinnUniversity of Technology Mining Department.
 Fig 1 Learning pathwys in Maardu mining area
5.2.Case 2. Technology for quarry
Technology planning is a very good quarries usedvisualization options, because engineer know exactlyhow much space a particular process needs to work.And then engineer can but correct process to the

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