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Lecture on Algebra 2

Lecture on Algebra 2

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Hanoi University of Science and Technology
Faculty of Applied mathematics and informatics
Advanced Training Program
Lecture on
Algebra
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thieu Huy
Hanoi 2008
 
 Nguyen Thieu Huy,
 Lecture on Algebra
 
1
 
Preface
This
 Lecture on Algebra
is written for students of Advanced Training Programs of Mechatronics (from California State University –CSU Chico) and Material Science (fromUniversity of Illinois- UIUC). When preparing the manuscript of this lecture, we have tocombine the two syllabuses of two courses on Algebra of the two programs (Math 031 of CSU Chico and Math 225 of UIUC). There are some
d
ifferences between the two syllabuses,e.g., there is no module of algebraic structures and complex numbers in Math 225, and nomodule of orthogonal projections and least square approximations in Math 031, etc.Therefore, for sake of completeness, this lecture provides all the modules of knowledgewhich are given in both syllabuses. Students will be introduced to the theory and applicationsof matrices and systems of linear equations, vector spaces, linear transformations,eigenvalue problems, Euclidean spaces, orthogonal projections and least squareapproximations, as they arise, for instance, from electrical networks, frameworks inmechanics, processes in statistics and linear models, systems of linear differential equationsand so on. The lecture is organized in such a way that the students can comprehend the mostuseful knowledge of linear algebra and its applications to engineering problems.We would like to thank Prof. Tran Viet Dung for his careful reading of the manuscript. Hiscomments and remarks lead to better appearance of this lecture. We also thank Dr. NguyenHuu Tien, Dr. Tran Xuan Tiep and all the lecturers of Faculty of Applied Mathematics andInformatics for their inspiration and support during the preparation of the lecture.Hanoi, October 20, 2008Dr. Nguyen Thieu Huy
 
 
 Nguyen Thieu Huy,
 Lecture on Algebra
 
2
Contents
 Chapter 1: Sets..................................................................................4
 I. Concepts and basic operations...........................................................................................4  II. Set equalities....................................................................................................................7  III. Cartesian products...........................................................................................................8 
Chapter 2: Mappings........................................................................9
 I. Definition and examples....................................................................................................9  II. Compositions....................................................................................................................9  III. Images and inverse images...........................................................................................10  IV. Injective, surjective, bijective, and inverse mappings..................................................11 
 I. Groups.............................................................................................................................13  II. Rings...............................................................................................................................15  III. Fields.............................................................................................................................16  IV. The field of complex numbers......................................................................................16 
Chapter 4: Matrices........................................................................26
 I. Basic concepts.................................................................................................................26  II. Matrix addition, scalar multiplication............................................................................28  III. Matrix multiplications...................................................................................................29  IV. Special matrices............................................................................................................31  V. Systems of linear equations............................................................................................33  VI. Gauss elimination method............................................................................................34 
Chapter 5: Vector spaces...............................................................41
 I. Basic concepts.................................................................................................................41  II. Subspaces.......................................................................................................................43  III. Linear combinations, linear spans.................................................................................44  IV. Linear dependence and independence..........................................................................45  V. Bases and dimension......................................................................................................47  VI. Rank of matrices...........................................................................................................50  VII. Fundamental theorem of systems of linear equations.................................................53  VIII. Inverse of a matrix.....................................................................................................55  X. Determinant and inverse of a matrix, Cramer’s rule......................................................60  XI. Coordinates in vector spaces........................................................................................62 
 I. Basic definitions..............................................................................................................65  II. Kernels and images........................................................................................................67  III. Matrices and linear mappings.......................................................................................71  IV. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors.......................................................................................74  V. Diagonalizations.............................................................................................................78  VI. Linear operators (transformations)...............................................................................81 
Chapter 7: Euclidean Spaces.........................................................86
 I. Inner product spaces........................................................................................................86  II. Length (or Norm) of vectors..........................................................................................88  III. Orthogonality................................................................................................................89  IV. Projection and least square approximations:................................................................93  V. Orthogonal matrices and orthogonal transformation.....................................................97 

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