- destroy or disrupt enemy nuclear associated command, control, and communications;and- destroy or neutralize as many of the enemy's nuclear weapons as possible on the groundor at sea before they are launched.Soviet defensive forces, lending greater credibility to offensive forces, are to:- intercept and destroy surviving weapons - aircraft and missiles - before they reach their targets; and- protect the Party, the state, military forces, industrial infrastructure, and the essentialworking population with active and passive measures against those weapons that surviveattacks by Soviet offensive forces.In pursuit of these goals, the USSR places considerable stress on the need for effectivestrategic defenses as well as offensive forces. In the Soviet view, the USSR could best achieve itsaims in a nuclear war if it attacks first, destroying much of the US and allied capability for retaliation. Defensive measures, both active and passive, would in turn prevent those enemyforces that survived a Soviet first strike from destroying targets in the USSR.In Military Strategy-originally published in 1962 - Marshal V.D. Sokolovskiy defined theaim of Soviet strategic defenses in this way:"They have the task of creating an invincible systemfor the defense of the entire country....While, in the last war, it was sufficient to destroy 15-20 percent of the attacking air operation, now it is necessary to assure, essentially, 100 percentdestruction of all attacking airplanes and missiles." Soviet defensive force developments over the past 25 years demonstrate that the strategy articulated by Sokolovskiy still applies.
Ballistic Missile Defense
The world's only operational ABM system is maintained around Moscow. In 1978, theSoviets began to upgrade and expand that system to the limit allowed by the 1972 ABM Treaty.The original single-layer Moscow ABM system included 64 reloadable above-ground launchersat 4 complexes and DOG HOUSE and CATHOUSE battle management radars south of Moscow.Each complex consisted of TRY ADD tracking and guidance radars and GALOSHexoatmospheric interceptors (nuclear armed, ground-based missiles designed to interceptwarheads in space shortly before they reenter the Earth's atmosphere).When completed, the modernized Moscow ABM system will be a two-layer defensecomposed of silo-based, long-range, modified GALOSH interceptors; silo-based GAZELLEhigh-acceleration endoatmospheric interceptors designed to engage targets within theatmosphere; associated engagement, guidance and battle management radar systems; and a newlarge radar at Pushkino designed to control ABM engagements. The silo-based launchers may bereloadable. The new system will have the 100 ABM launchers permitted by the ABM Treaty andcould be fully operational by 1987.