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Nuclear Test Flash Blindness

Nuclear Test Flash Blindness

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Published by rlnac
Compilation of Nuclear Test Flash Blindness & Retinal Burn Data
DASA 2689 April 1971
Compilation of Nuclear Test Flash Blindness & Retinal Burn Data
DASA 2689 April 1971

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Published by: rlnac on Jan 31, 2012
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DASA
2689
April
1971
URS
7011
4
COMPILATION
OF
NUCLEAR
TEST
,
FLASH
BLINDNESS
&
RETINAL
BURN
DATA
and
ANALYTICEXPRESSIONS
FOR
CALCULATING
SAFE
SEPARATION
DISTANCES
FINAL
REPORT
This
work
sponsored
by
the
Defense
Atomic
Support
Agency
underNWERSubtaskME
192
Prepared
by
Ruth
W.Shnider
HEADQUARTERS
Defense
Atomic
Support
AgencyWashington,
D.C.
20305
URS
RE5EARCH
COMPANY
155
Bovet
Road
Son
Mateo,
California
94402
tf
Contract
No.
DASAO1-70-C-0103
RgolOdu-d
by
NATIONAL
TECHNICAL
INcORMATION
SERVIE
it
1)lrlh
old,
VaI
22151
~~Approved
for
public
release;
distributionunlimited
-I iIIIJ
 
UNCLASSIFIED
Secudtiv
Clasairtcation
..
u
i
nDOCUMENT
CONTROL
DATA.
R &
D.
(SCLitiI)P
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TSEUIYC
IINOAIN
UnclassifiedA
URS
Research
Company
UP
an
Mateo,
California
94402
1
.u
3,
REPORTTITLE
COMPILATION
OF
NUCLEAR
TEST
FLASHBLINDNESSANDRETINAL
BURN
DATA
and
ANALYTIC
EXPRESSIONS
FOR
CALCULATING
SAFE SEPARATION
DISTANCES
4.
OEsIctPTiVE
NOTEs
(21'.
ofaoPm
and
ineluele
date.)
Fi
aR
e
r
t
(e
1
7
-A
r
i
1
r.
UTIO(lP
(
re me,
a
.
initial.
nat ram)
Ruth
W.
Shnider
4.
REPORT
OATE
7A.
TOTAL
N'
OP
PAGES
P.
NO.
Of,
Rps
April
1971
55
49
.
cONTRACT
OR
GRANT
NO.
SAL
ORIGINATOR'S8
REPORT
NUVEKRES)
DASA
01-70-C-0103
UPS
7011
b.
PROJECT
NO.
NWER
XAXM
e.
Task
and
Subtask
E
192
S.
OTHERREPORT
Nos(AW
OpatIma
n
Ifmat
a"a
b*aaload
d.
Work
Unit
01
DASA
2689
I0.
OISYRIUTION
STATEMENT
Approved
for
publicrelease;
distributionunlimited
I
I.
SUPPLEMENUTANY
NOTEs
IS.
SPONSORING
MILITARYACTIVITY
Director
Defense
Atomic
Support
Agency
Washington,
D.C.
20305
Is.
AMITRACT
Characteristics
of
the
human
eye
thataffectthe
eye's
sensitivily
to
thermal
radiation,
and
potential
protective
measures
are
summarized.Nuclear
bursts
at
which
flash-blindness
and
retinalburn
effects
have
beendocumented
are
identified,
and
the
effects
are
reviewed
and
evaluated.Laboratory
studies
on flash-blindness
arebrieflyreviewed,
and
wide
variations
are
noted
in
individual
recovery
times
from
effects
pro-
duced
by
thesame
source
under
the
sameconditions.
Analyticalequations
derived
from
analysis
of
nuclear
burst
data
are
presented
for
calculating
the
following
parameters
ofthermal
radihtion:
(1)
fireballradius
as
a
function
of
time;
(2)
time
to
finalthermal
maximum,
tf,
for
airbursts;
(3)
radiant
exposure
up
to
10
tf;
(4)
rate
of
thermalenergy
delivery
as
a
function
of
time;
(5)
fraction
of
thermal
energy
delivere
as
a
function
of
time;
(6)
rate
of thermalenergy
delivery
at
time
of
first
thermal
maximum.
Criteria
based
on
nuclear
test
effectsare
evaluated
for
prevention
of
retinal
burn.
Separation
distances,
based
on
the
criteria,
and
calculated
by
use
of
the analytical
equations
are
presentedgraphically
for
the
following
conditions:
safeviewing
by
unprotecteddark-adapted
subjects
on
the
ground
of
only
the
first
100
msec
of
night
bursts
of
yields
of
1,
10,
45, 100,
and
1000
kt
at
altitudes
from
1
to
20
km;
safe
viewing
for
night-adaptedvisually
unprotected
subjects
coaltitude
with
the sameburst
yields.Resultsare
estimated
accuratewithin
25
to
50%.
DD
IM.
o-1473
PETL
FCO
AIMI
WE
M
UNCLASSIFIED
' q30=10I7IcII I I I I I
 
UNCLASSIFIED
Icutarti
Canalflcation
KEY
WORDS
Lm'
IKaLN
ROILI
WT
RLK
WT
ROLE
UY
FRetinal
Burns
:L
Flashblindnesq
Uecwt Clasgtflcaoo

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