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Advances in Ultrasonic Testing of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds

Advances in Ultrasonic Testing of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds

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Advances in ultrasonic testing of austeniticstainless steel welds. Towards a 3D descriptionof the material including attenuation and
J. Moysan
, C. Gueudré
, M.-A. Ploix
, G. Corneloup
, Ph. Guy
, R. ElGuerjouma
, B. Chassignole
In the case of multi-pass welds, the material is very difficult to describedue to its anisotropic and heterogeneous properties. Anisotropy results from themetal solidification and is correlated with the grain orientation. A precisedescription of the material is one of the key points to obtain reliable results withwave propagation codes. A first advance is the model MINA which predicts thegrain orientations in multi-pass 316-L steel welds. For flat position welding, goodpredictions of the grains orientations were obtained using 2D modelling. In case of welding in position the resulting grain structure may be 3D oriented. We indicatehow the MINA model can be improved for 3D description. A second advance is agood quantification of the attenuation. Precise measurements are obtained usingplane waves angular spectrum method together with the computation of thetransmission coefficients for triclinic material. With these two first advances, thethird one is now possible: developing an inverse method to obtain the materialdescription through ultrasonic measurements at different positions.
J. Moysan, C. Gueudré, M.-A. Ploix, G. CorneloupLCND, Université de la Méditerranée, Av. G. Berger, 13625 Aix en Provence, France, joseph.moysan@univmed.frPh. GuyMATEIS, INSA Lyon, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne, France, philippe.guy@insa-lyon.frR. El-GuerjoumaLAUM, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9, France, rachid.elguerjouma@univ-lemans.frB. ChassignoleDépartement MMC, EDF R&D, Site des Renardières, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing, France,bertrand.chassignole@edf.fr
optimisation by inversion
1 Introduction
Austenitic steel multi-pass welds exhibit a heterogeneous and anisotropic structurethat causes difficulties in the ultrasonic testing (UT) understanding. Increasing thematerial knowledge has been an international large and long term research field.Some years ago works aiming at giving a precise description of the materialprovided significant progresses [1].This paper acquaints firstly with a synthesis of several research works aiming at modelling UT inspection in multipass welds. Inall these previous works the UT modelling is considered as 2D case. In a secondpart the question of a 3D representation of the material resulting from the weldingin position arises. New modelling ideas are presented to improve 2D MINA modeltowards a 3D material description. Modelling is done with the final goal to useinverse methodology in UT testing. The paper syntheses other milestones obtainedalong this way: attenuation measurements and results with inverse methodology.
2 The context: UT modelling for welds inspection
The main specificity of the weld material is its oriented grain structure which hasto be described as an anisotropic and heterogeneous material. The description of the grain structure regularly progresses from simplified and symmetrical structuresto more realistic descriptions. Ogilvy [2] proposes to calculate the central ray in agrain structure described by mathematical functions. Schmitz et al [3] use the raytracing code 3D-Ray-SAFT with an empirical grain structure described byorientation vectors with three coordinates. The EFIT (Element Finite IntegrationTechnique) code is used by Halkjaer et al [4] with Ogilvy's grain structure.Langerberg et al [5] also simulate a simplified symmetrical structure. Spies [6]uses a Gaussian beam approach to calculate the transducer field and to ensurefaster modelling. The author simulates the heterogeneity by splitting up the weldinto several layers of transverse isotropic material [7]. X. Zhao et al [8] also use aray tracing approach to determine optimal configuration for flaw detection.Corresponding material descriptions do not always reach the complexity of theheterogeneous structure resulting from manual arc welding. The structure of thereal material is non symmetrical and UT modelling may exhibit strong differences[9]. Our modelling approach couples MINA model and ATHENA code [10].Heterogeneous and anisotropic structure is defined by introducing a meshcontaining the grain orientations calculated by MINA model (cf. § 3). This permitsto define the appropriate coordinate systems of the elasticity constants at any pointof the weld. A result of the coupling between ATHENA and MINA is presentedon figure 1. The UT testing is modelled using a 60° longitudinal wave at 2.25MHz. The corresponding echodynamic curves are calculated using ATHENAresults in transmission at the bottom of the weld. In the right part of this figure theresult of the coupling MINA-ATHENA is compared with an ATHENA modelling
J. Moysan et al.16
using the “real” grain structure. This real grain structure is obtained by imageanalysis of the macrographs [11].
Fig. 1 Example of results from coupling ATHENA and MINA codes.
3 MINA model parameters for flat welding
planned to describe the material resulting from flat position arc welding withshielded electrode at a functional scale for UT modeling. It predicts the result of the grain growth [12]. Three physical phenomena are involved: the epitaxialgrowth, the influence of temperature gradient, and the competition between thegrains (selective growth). Epitaxial growth implies that the melt metal takes ineach point the crystallographic orientations of the underlying pass. The grain mayturn during the growth but the crystallographic orientation is kept. When thetemperature gradient changes of direction, grains have a propensity to alignthemselves with the gradient direction. In the case of multi-pass welding,temperature gradient direction changes within the welding pass and also from onepass to the other. A competition between grains exists as they preferentially growif their longitudinal axis is close to the direction of the temperature gradient.The challenge of creating a model reproducing the result of these phenomena hasbeen successfully won with MINA model. The difficulty was to use onlyknowledge reported in the welding notebook and, in order to complete thisknowledge, to find representative parameters of the variation in the deposit of passes. Macrographs analysis was widely used to build the model. The model isdedicated to predict material resulting from flat welding. In that case the grainstructure is reputed to be 2D. A complete description of the model can be found in[12]. Main MINA model parameters are recalled here in order to introduce howMINA model may be improved for welding in position. A pass is represented by aparabolic shape. Pass heights are calculated proportionally to the diameters of the
Advances in Ultrasonic Testing of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds
The MINA model (Modelling anIsotropy from Notebook of Arc welding) was

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