2.Systems Approach: Multiple goal attainment may not be accurate because theremay be high success on one goal where as failure in other goals. Within Systemsapproach framework, OE reflects the degree to which an organization maximizesall forms of energetic return (i.e. inputs and outputs) in its relationship with theenvironment; i.e. the adaptability of the entire range of activities to the externalenvironment.3.Strategic – Constituencies Approach: It is a closely related approach to Systemsapproach, but affectivity is considered not on all environmental constituencies, but on those constituencies from which it requires support for which it requiressupport for its continued survival or those constituencies of the environmentwhich threaten the organization’s survival.4.Competitive- Values Approach- It is the integrated assessment of the OE on the basis of all of the above variables.
It is the process by which an organization moves from its present state to some desiredfuture state to increase their effectiveness. Nature:
Change is vital if an organization were to avoid stagnation,
it is a process and not an event,
it is normal and constant,
it can be directive (i.e. implemented by top- down management) or participative(i.e. involving all parties that are effected by the change),
it is natural- evolutionary/ adaptive, i.e. a reaction to the external environment and pressure,
incremental/ continuous in steps, and
is interdependent on the organization environment/ culture.Change interferes with three organization components-
the historical and political evolution of the company
the organization and the management of the company
The people who work for the company.Some definitions-
Change agent- Person(s) who act as a catalyst and accepts the responsibility for managing the change processed
Change interventions- The planned action to make the things different.
Change Targets- Individual and groups who are affected by the change.
Levels of Change
Change can occur at three levels-(a) Individual level,(b) Group level, and(c) Organization level.