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Organisational Behaviour Module-3

Organisational Behaviour Module-3

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Published by Malvika Pattnaik

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Published by: Malvika Pattnaik on Feb 02, 2012
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It is the planned co-ordination of activities of a number of peoplefor the achievement of a common, explicit purpose or goal through division of labor andfunction, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility.
Organization Structure-
It is the formal system of task and authority relationships thatcontrol how people co-ordinate their actions and use resources to achieve organizationgoals.
When members of an organization work together for years, in the process, some differentfeelings, norms, values and practices tend to emerge and these become internalized by themembers. Some of these norms and practices become so much internalized that no bodyquestions them or we can say that they are institutionalized. This institutionalization becomes useful as it prevents unnecessary questioning. It may also be harmful if itdevelops groupthink, resistance to change or innovations.It is defined as a representation of beliefs, attitudes and norms which knit an organizationtogether and is shared by its employees. It is usually learnt and it develops in response totwo major challenges that confront every organization: (a) external adaptation andsurvival, and (b) internal integration.External Adaptation includes- (a) mission and strategy- the prime purpose of theorganization and selecting the strategy to pursue the mission, (b) Goals- setting specifictargets, (c) Means- Selecting organization structure and reward system, and (d)Measurement- establishing the criteria to determine how well the individual the teams areaccomplishing their goals.Internal integration has to do with the establishment and maintenance of effectiveworking relationships among the members of the organization. It includes: (a) languageand concepts- describing standard communication, (b) group and team boundaries-describing criteria for group and team membership, (c) Power and structures- rules for acquiring power and status, and (d) Reward and punishment- developing systems for encouraging desirable behaviors and discouraging undesired behaviors.
Organization Effectiveness (OE):
Words like productivity, efficiency, profitability andgrowth are interchangeably used to denote Organization effectiveness. Any organizationhas multiple goals, e.g. an educational institution has goals like teaching, research etc.There are at least four approaches to measure OE, they are:1.Goal Attainment approach- Achievement of one or more goals set byorganizations is taken as the criteria to judge the OE. Profit maximization, high productivity (for manufacturing organizations), employees high morale (foeducational org./ offices), and providing efficient service (for serviceorganizations) are examples of Goal attainment criteria.
2.Systems Approach: Multiple goal attainment may not be accurate because theremay be high success on one goal where as failure in other goals. Within Systemsapproach framework, OE reflects the degree to which an organization maximizesall forms of energetic return (i.e. inputs and outputs) in its relationship with theenvironment; i.e. the adaptability of the entire range of activities to the externalenvironment.3.Strategic – Constituencies Approach: It is a closely related approach to Systemsapproach, but affectivity is considered not on all environmental constituencies, but on those constituencies from which it requires support for which it requiressupport for its continued survival or those constituencies of the environmentwhich threaten the organization’s survival.4.Competitive- Values Approach- It is the integrated assessment of the OE on the basis of all of the above variables.
It is the process by which an organization moves from its present state to some desiredfuture state to increase their effectiveness. Nature:
Change is vital if an organization were to avoid stagnation,
it is a process and not an event,
it is normal and constant,
it can be directive (i.e. implemented by top- down management) or participative(i.e. involving all parties that are effected by the change),
it is natural- evolutionary/ adaptive, i.e. a reaction to the external environment and pressure,
incremental/ continuous in steps, and
is interdependent on the organization environment/ culture.Change interferes with three organization components-
the historical and political evolution of the company
the organization and the management of the company
The people who work for the company.Some definitions-
Change agent- Person(s) who act as a catalyst and accepts the responsibility for managing the change processed
Change interventions- The planned action to make the things different.
Change Targets- Individual and groups who are affected by the change.
Levels of Change
Change can occur at three levels-(a) Individual level,(b) Group level, and(c) Organization level.
Importance of Change
Change is inevitable, organization must adapt to demands of the environment or they will become extinct.
An organization can not and should not stagnate even if it wants to remainconstant, external factors force it to change.
Change encompasses all aspects of one’s personality like personality, perception,leadership etc.
The word “Change” is not liked as it invokes emotional reaction.
Planned Change
Change may be either necessited by the pressure of external pressures or by deliberateand conscious efforts of the management. The later type of change is called PlannedChange. It encompasses the application of systematic and appropriate knowledge tohuman affairs for the purpose of creating action and choices.The management may decide to go in for Planned Change for the following reasons:
To improve the means for satisfying economic needs of its members/ employees.
To increase efficiency and profitability.
To improve humanization of work environment.
To contribute to development and social well- being of each employee.1.It is implemented through Change Agents- external consultants/ from inside theorganization who manage the process of change.2.Target of change- individual/ group/ organization.3.Change Intervention- process of change (planned action meant to change).
Kurt Lewin’s Model/ 3- stage Model/ Force- field theoryOf Planned Change
Resistance to change can be overcome by systematically planning and implementing thechange. Kurt Lewin argued that successful implementation of change should follow threestages- (a) Unfreezing the status- quo, (b) Movement to new state, and (c) Refreezing.Fig. No.20.8Page-597(a)Unfreezing the status- quo: Change efforts to overcome both the individualresistance and group conformity. Encourages individuals to discard old behaviors by increasing the driving forces. This is achieved by introducing a new problemand seeking solutions. Often the elimination of reward for current behaviors may be introduced.(b)Moving to new state: Shift or alter the behavior of individuals/ group/organization in which change is to take place. Moving implies developing new

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