major area of the linguistic sciences and tries to provide detailed coverage of that area.Of course, it is not possible to include every single one of the many thousands of terms which make anappearance somewhere in the phonological literature, but the nearly 2,000 terms which are defined hereshould include virtually every term you are likely to encounter outside the most specialized monographs.The larger part of the dictionary is devoted to terms which have been in existence for some time and whichlook likely to remain in use for the foreseeable future:
alternation, apical, contour tone, creaky voice,obstruent, rule loss, sandhi, vowel harmony.
Though articulatory phonetics naturally features very prominently in these pages, acoustic and perceptual phonetics are not neglected, nor is general speech science:
Action Theory, acoustic filter, cochlea, duplexerception, electromyography, formant, quantal vowel, transition.
The terminology of classical phonology is well covered, including the terms used by the Prague School, byDaniel Jones and by the American Structuralists:
archiphoneme, biuniqueness, diaphone, EPD, juncturehoneme, privative opposition.
Classical generative phonology is abundantly covered:
absolute neutralization, exchange rule, Halle’sargument, systematic phoneme.
Among more recent developments, Autosegmental Phonology and MetricalPhonology are treated in particular detail:
demibeat, deforestation, dumping, iambic reversal, No-Crossing Constraint, timing tier.
But the principal terms from nearly all the major developments in phonology in thelast two decades are also defined:
coronal underspecification, Derived Environment Constraint, featureeometry, hot feature, Prosodic Hierarchy, subjunction, via rule.
Distinctive features are covered in great detail. Summaries of some half-dozen feature systems are given, andmany dozens of individual features are defined. page_viiPage viiiThere is ample coverage of the phonology of English:
Estuary English, Great Vowel Shift, Received Pronunciation, rhotic accent, Trager-Smith system, velar softening.
Terms specific to other languages areincluded if they feature prominently in the literature:
Grassmann’s Law, liaison, radoppiamento sintattico,rendaku, seseo, soft mutation, yer.
I have made a point of including a number of terms largely confined to the older philological literature, sincethese are often maddeningly difficult to look up elsewhere:
anlaut, cacuminal, implosive position, surd,tenuis.
There is a good deal of coverage of phonological change and variation, both traditional terms and recentones:
apocope, Bill Peters effect, chain shift, lexical diffusion, reversal of merger, rhotacization, umlaut.
Given the current importance of metrical ideas in phonology, traditional terms from metrics are wellcovered:
crasis, masculine rhyme, synizesis, tetrameter, trochee.
For many entries there are multiple definitions; competing and conflicting usages are noted and described,and recommendations are often provided; examples of troublesome terms are
breathy voice, dorsum, flap,heavy syllable, hypercorrection, prosody, tone.
As far as possible, I have tried to identify the originalsources of the terms, and for many of the more important terms I have suggested further reading.The alphabetical order used is one which ignores both hyphens and spaces between words. Thus, for example,
The pronunciation given is that typical of the south of England. Speakers of other varieties of English will, Ihope, find little difficulty in making any necessary adjustments.In an enterprise of this kind, it is no doubt inevitable that there will prove to bea few errors and omissions. If you find any, I shall be pleased to hear about them. You can write to me at the School of Cognitive andComputing Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK, or e-mail me email@example.com. page_viiiPage ix
I should like to thank Julia Hall, Emma Cotter, Alison Foyle and Caroline Cautley of Routledge for encouraging this book and for putting up with several exasperating delays along the way. To Dick Hudson Iam indebted for getting me into the linguistic lexicography business in the first place. Two anonymousreaders, and later Richard Coates, John Goldsmith and most especially Max Wheeler, read and commentedon early drafts of varying sizes; I am grateful to all of them, and I have managed to incorporate most of their comments into the final version. I regret that Goldsmith’s 1995 book appeared too late to be taken intoaccount in preparing the dictionary; this book contains useful further reading on many of the entries in thedictionary. I am further indebted to Kasia Jaszczo
h for making available to me a body of unpublished work in Optimality Theory. And, as always, I am deeply grateful to Jenny Potts for an impeccable job of copy-editing. Naturally, I owe an enormous debt to all my fellow linguists, past and present, whose works I have combedfor terms and definitions. Among those phoneticians and linguists of whose work I have made particularly